Abstract

We present an optimization technique utilizing order statistics with a multichannel digital silicon photomultiplier (MD-SiPM) for timing measurements. Accurate timing measurements are required by 3D rangefinding and time-of-flight positron emission tomography, to name a few applications. We have demonstrated the ability of the MD-SiPM to detect multiple photons, and we verified the advantage of detecting multiple photons assuming incoming photons follow a Gaussian distribution. We have also shown the advantage of utilizing multiple timestamps for estimating time-of-arrivals more accurately. This estimation technique can be widely available in various applications, which have a certain probability density function of incoming photons, such as a scintillator or a laser source.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).
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  7. T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
  8. C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.
  9. L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.
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  11. S. Mandai and E. Charbon, J. Instrum. 8, 1 (2013).
  12. M. W. Fishburn and E. Charbon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2549 (2010).
  13. S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1797 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. T. van Dam, G. Borghi, S. Seifert, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3243 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Rohner, K. Siercks, and J. Hinderling, “Single-photon detection for high precision ranging—a trade-off study,” in Proceedings of the 1st Range Imaging Research Day, Zurich, Swizerland, 2005, pp. 33–42.
  16. S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

2013

S. Mandai and E. Charbon, J. Instrum. 8, 1 (2013).

H. T. van Dam, G. Borghi, S. Seifert, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3243 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

2012

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1797 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

M. W. Fishburn and E. Charbon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2549 (2010).

2008

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ballizany, R.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.

Bellis, S. J.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borghetti, F.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Borghi, G.

H. T. van Dam, G. Borghi, S. Seifert, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3243 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Braga, L.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Buzhan, P.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carbone, B.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Charbon, E.

S. Mandai and E. Charbon, J. Instrum. 8, 1 (2013).

M. W. Fishburn and E. Charbon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2549 (2010).

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

S. Mandai and E. Charbon, in IEEE European Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2012), p. 89.

Christian, J.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Condorelli, G.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

de Gruyter, R.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.

Degenhardt, C.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.

Demarteau, M.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Dokhale, P.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Dolgoshein, B.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fallica, G.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Filatov, L.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fishburn, M. W.

M. W. Fishburn and E. Charbon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2549 (2010).

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Frach, T.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.

Gasparini, L.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Gersbach, M.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Grant, L.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Henderson, R.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Henderson, R. K.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Herbert, D. J.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hinderling, J.

M. Rohner, K. Siercks, and J. Hinderling, “Single-photon detection for high precision ranging—a trade-off study,” in Proceedings of the 1st Range Imaging Research Day, Zurich, Swizerland, 2005, pp. 33–42.

Hughes, P. J.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilyin, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. C.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Kantzerov, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaplin, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karakash, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kayumov, F.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klemin, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. U.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Los, S.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Mandai, S.

S. Mandai and E. Charbon, J. Instrum. 8, 1 (2013).

S. Mandai and E. Charbon, in IEEE European Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2012), p. 89.

Maruyama, Y.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Massari, N.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Mazzillo, M.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

McClish, M.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Melchiorri, M.

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perenzoni, M.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Piana, A.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Piazza, A.

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piemonte, C.

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popova, E.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prescher, G.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.

Ramberg, E.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Richardson, J.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Robertson, R.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Rohner, M.

M. Rohner, K. Siercks, and J. Hinderling, “Single-photon detection for high precision ranging—a trade-off study,” in Proceedings of the 1st Range Imaging Research Day, Zurich, Swizerland, 2005, pp. 33–42.

Ronzhin, A.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Sanfilippo, D.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

Saveliev, V.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaart, D. R.

H. T. van Dam, G. Borghi, S. Seifert, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3243 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1797 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, A.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, and R. Ballizany, in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.

Seifert, S.

S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

H. T. van Dam, G. Borghi, S. Seifert, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3243 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1797 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shah, K. S.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Siercks, K.

M. Rohner, K. Siercks, and J. Hinderling, “Single-photon detection for high precision ranging—a trade-off study,” in Proceedings of the 1st Range Imaging Research Day, Zurich, Swizerland, 2005, pp. 33–42.

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stapels, C.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

Steenbergen, J. H. L.

S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

Stewart, A. G.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stoppa, D.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Tarolli, A.

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valvo, G.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

van Dam, H. T.

S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

H. T. van Dam, G. Borghi, S. Seifert, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3243 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1797 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Veerappan, C.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

Walker, R.

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, and E. Charbon, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2011), p. 312.

L. Braga, L. Gasparini, L. Grant, R. Henderson, N. Massari, M. Perenzoni, D. Stoppa, and R. Walker, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuit Conference (IEEE, 2013), p. 486.

Zorzi, N.

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. G. Stewart, V. Saveliev, S. J. Bellis, D. J. Herbert, P. J. Hughes, and J. C. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 157 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

M. McClish, P. Dokhale, J. Christian, C. Stapels, E. Johnson, R. Robertson, and K. S. Shah, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2280 (2010).

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, D. Sanfilippo, G. Valvo, B. Carbone, A. Piana, G. Fallica, A. Ronzhin, M. Demarteau, S. Los, and E. Ramberg, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2273 (2010).

M. W. Fishburn and E. Charbon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 2549 (2010).

J. Instrum.

S. Mandai and E. Charbon, J. Instrum. 8, 1 (2013).

S. Seifert, J. H. L. Steenbergen, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, J. Instrum. 7, 1 (2013).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Zorzi, M. Melchiorri, A. Piazza, C. Piemonte, and A. Tarolli, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 636, S208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, and D. R. Schaart, Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 1797 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Measurement setup. (b) MD-SiPM structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental and theoretical p.d.f. curves of each photon at (a) 1 photon level, (b) 2 photon level, (c) 4 photon level, and (d) 9 photon level.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Timing resolution of each rank of photons at 2, 4, and 9 photon level laser intensity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Timing resolution utilizing single timestamp in each photon-level per laser pulse.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Timing resolution of each rank of photons and estimated timing resolution utilizing multiple ranks of photons at 9 level photon laser intensity.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of timing resolution with various algorithms.

Equations (1)

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fk:n(t)=n(n1k1)f(t)F(t)k1(1F(t))nk.

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