Abstract

A real-time phase shift interference microscopy system is presented using a polarization-based Linnik interferometer operating with three synchronized, phase-masked, parallel detectors. Using this method, several important applications that require high speed and accuracy, such as dynamic focusing control, tilt measurement, submicrometer roughness measurement, and 3D profiling of fine structures, are demonstrated in 50 volumes per second and with 2 nm height repeatability.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

K. Creath and G. Goldstein, Proc. SPIE 8589, 85891A (2013).

2012

2011

2010

2009

E. Cuche, Y. Emery, and F. Montfort, Nat. Photonics 3, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

2005

2001

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, Opt. Commun. 190, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Abdulhalim, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, and Y. Guo, Opt. Eng. 37, 1419 (1998).

1994

1993

Y. Xu and C. Ai, Proc. SPIE 2003, 254 (1993).

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 47, 91 (1993).

J. M. Hurntely and H. Saldner, Appl. Opt. 32, 3047 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

H. A. Vroom and A. A. M. Maas, Appl. Opt. 30, 1636 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Koliopoulos, Proc. SPIE 1531, 119 (1991).

1990

1987

1984

Y. Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, Appl. Opt. 23, 4539 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Smythe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 234361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

1973

1971

Abdulhalim, I.

Ai, C.

Y. Xu and C. Ai, Proc. SPIE 2003, 254 (1993).

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Bernabeu, E.

Bo, T.

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, Opt. Commun. 190, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2011), pp. 313–352.

Brock, N.

Bruning, J. H.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1978), pp. 547–655.

Cheng, Y. Y.

Chim, S. S. C.

Choi, W.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Clark, R. L.

Creath, K.

K. Creath and G. Goldstein, Proc. SPIE 8589, 85891A (2013).

K. Creath and G. Goldstein, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2866 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Creath, Appl. Opt. 26, 2810 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1988), pp. 351–366.

Cuche, E.

E. Cuche, Y. Emery, and F. Montfort, Nat. Photonics 3, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Dunn, G. A.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 47, 91 (1993).

Emery, Y.

E. Cuche, Y. Emery, and F. Montfort, Nat. Photonics 3, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Goldstein, G.

K. Creath and G. Goldstein, Proc. SPIE 8589, 85891A (2013).

K. Creath and G. Goldstein, Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2866 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

X. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, and Y. Guo, Opt. Eng. 37, 1419 (1998).

Hayes, J.

He, X.

X. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, and Y. Guo, Opt. Eng. 37, 1419 (1998).

Hurntely, J. M.

Ina, H.

Jenness, N. J.

Kino, G. S.

Kobayashi, S.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

C. L. Koliopoulos, Proc. SPIE 1531, 119 (1991).

Liu, S.

X. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, and Y. Guo, Opt. Eng. 37, 1419 (1998).

Maas, A. A. M.

Macy, W. W.

Millerd, J.

Montfort, F.

E. Cuche, Y. Emery, and F. Montfort, Nat. Photonics 3, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R.

R. Smythe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 234361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morris, M. N.

Ngoi, B. K. A.

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, Opt. Commun. 190, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Novak, M.

Park, Y. K.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Polhemus, C.

Popescu, G.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

Quiroga, J. A.

Rinehart, M. T.

Safrani, A.

Saldner, H.

Schreiber, H.

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1978), pp. 547–655.

Shaked, N. T.

Sivakumar, N. R.

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, Opt. Commun. 190, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, R.

R. Smythe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 234361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stetson, K. A.

Takeda, M.

Venkatakrishnan, K.

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, Opt. Commun. 190, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vroom, H. A.

Wax, A.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2011), pp. 313–352.

Wyant, J.

Wyant, J. C.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu and C. Ai, Proc. SPIE 2003, 254 (1993).

Zicha, D.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 47, 91 (1993).

Zou, D.

X. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, and Y. Guo, Opt. Eng. 37, 1419 (1998).

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Blood Cells Mol. Dis.

G. Popescu, Y. K. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41, 10 (2008).

J. Mod. Opt.

I. Abdulhalim, J. Mod. Opt. 48, 279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nat. Photonics

E. Cuche, Y. Emery, and F. Montfort, Nat. Photonics 3, 633 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, and T. Bo, Opt. Commun. 190, 109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. Smythe and R. Moore, Opt. Eng. 23, 234361 (1984).
[CrossRef]

X. He, D. Zou, S. Liu, and Y. Guo, Opt. Eng. 37, 1419 (1998).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

Y. Xu and C. Ai, Proc. SPIE 2003, 254 (1993).

C. L. Koliopoulos, Proc. SPIE 1531, 119 (1991).

K. Creath and G. Goldstein, Proc. SPIE 8589, 85891A (2013).

Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol.

G. A. Dunn and D. Zicha, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 47, 91 (1993).

Other

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 1978), pp. 547–655.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 2011), pp. 313–352.

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1988), pp. 351–366.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the real-time phase shift interference microscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Interference signal recorded in a single pixel at the middle of the CCD cameras while scanning a Si wafer along the perpendicular direction (z). CWP, compensation wave plate induces zero phase delay; QWP, quarter-wave plate induces π/2 phase delay; and HWP, half-wave plate induces π phase delay.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)–(e) Demonstration of dynamic focusing and tilt measurement. (f) Schematic view of the Si etched square pattern. (g) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) step height verification.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase-shifted interference images at (a) CCD1, (b) CCD2, (c) and CCD3, and (d) the extracted phase scaled with 8 bit gray scale.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

3D representation of the 262 nm etched Si square corner. The coordinates are in micrometer units.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3D representation of the 262 nm etched Si square corner. The coordinates are in micrometer units.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=B+Acosφ,
φ=2πλ·OPD.
Ii=B+Acos[φ+(i1)π/2];
φ=tg1[(I4I2)/(I1I3)],
φ=tg1[(I1+I32I2)/(I1I3)].
φ={atan2(x)+2π,0>atan2(x)atan2(x),else.

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