Abstract

We present a method for characterizing ultrashort laser pulses in space and time, based on spatially resolved Fourier transform spectrometry. An unknown pulse is interfered with a delayed, spatially uniform reference on a CCD camera. The reference pulse is created by spatially filtering a portion of the unknown pulse. By scanning the delay between the two pulses, an interferogram is obtained at each pixel, allowing us to determine the spatially resolved phase difference between the unknown pulse and the reference pulse. High-resolution spatiotemporal characterization of an ultrashort pulse is demonstrated, and the sensitivity of the method to spatiotemporal coupling is shown for the case of a pulse with pulse front tilt.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, Opt. Lett. 29, 775 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Gabolde and R. Trebino, Opt. Express 12, 4423 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (2)

1969 (1)

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Infrared Phys. 9, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, J. Opt. 12, 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, B.

Arnold, C.

Blasi, G.

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

Bowlan, P.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, J. Opt. 12, 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, Opt. Express 15, 10219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A.

Chamberlain, J.

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Infrared Phys. 9, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Crespo, H.

Danielius, R.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dantus, M.

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deck, L.

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

Eilenberger, F.

Fordell, T.

Forget, N.

Gabolde, P.

Gallmann, L.

Gebbie, H.

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Infrared Phys. 9, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, J.

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Infrared Phys. 9, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gitzinger, G.

Gogolak, Z.

Griebner, U.

Grunwald, R.

Gu, X.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, J. Opt. 12, 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 26, 932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Toro, J.

Iaconis, C.

Jedrkiewicz, O.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Kebbel, V.

Keller, U.

Kimmel, M.

Kosik, E. M.

Kucinskas, E.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

Loriot, V.

Lozovoy, V. V.

Matijosius, A.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, C.

Minardi, S.

F. Eilenberger, A. Brown, S. Minardi, and T. Pertsch, Opt. Express 21, 25968 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, M.

Neumann, U.

O’Shea, P.

Pastirk, I.

Pertsch, T.

Piskarskas, A.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Potenza, M. A.

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radunsky, A. S.

Reimann, K.

Román, J. S.

Roso, L.

Rupp, T.

Salerno, D.

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sola, Í. J.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

Szabo, G.

Trapani, P. D.

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Trillo, S.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valiulis, G.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varanavicius, A.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varela, Ó.

Walmsley, I. A.

Zaïr, A.

Infrared Phys. (1)

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Infrared Phys. 9, 185 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. de Groot and L. Deck, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

S. Akturk, X. Gu, P. Bowlan, and R. Trebino, J. Opt. 12, 093001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

J. Chamberlain, J. Gibbs, and H. Gebbie, Nature 198, 874 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. A. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavičius, A. Piskarskas, and P. D. Trapani, Opt. Commun. 229, 381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, A. Piskarskas, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the method. The pulse is split into two by a beamsplitter (BS1). The most intense part is focused with an off-axis parabola, and a pinhole is used to filter the beam and create a homogeneous spherical wave. Another beam-splitter (BS2) recombines the beams, and they spatially interfere on a CCD camera chip.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temporal characterization of the reference pulse. (a) Measured (left) and retrieved (right) d-scan traces. (b) Measured spectral intensity and retrieved phase. The inset shows the intensity time profile for the reference glass insertion, yielding a pulse duration of 6.6 fs FWHM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison between the spectrum directly measured using a linear CCD array spectrometer (black line) and the spectrum of the full beam obtained from Fourier transforming each pixel’s interferogram (interferogram example shown in inset) and adding them all together (gray line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstruction in the space–time domain of the laser beam as it hits the CCD camera. Isosurfaces shown are set at 0.8, 0.5, and 0.2 of the maximum intensity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reconstruction in the space-time domain of the laser beam as it hits the CCD camera. The isosurface shown is set at 0.5 of the maximum intensity.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a), (b) Intensity and (c), (d) real part of the complex field plotted for vertical (a), (c) and horizontal (b), (d) cuts across the center of the beam.

Equations (5)

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I(τ)=|U(t)+Ur(tτ)|2dt
I(τ)=|U(t)|2dt+|Ur(t)|2dt+U(t)Ur*(tτ)dt+U*(t)Ur(tτ)dt,
F{I(τ)}=F{|U(t)|2dt+|Ur(t)|2dt}+U˜(ω)U˜r*(ω)+U˜r*(ω)U˜r(ω).
A1(ω)=|U˜(ω)||U˜r(ω)|exp{i[ϕ(ω)ϕr(ω)]}.
U˜(x,y,ω)=A1(x,y,ω)|U˜r(ω)|exp{iϕr(ω)},

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