Abstract

The nonlinear response of liquid water was investigated at 1064 and 532 nm using a Nd:YAG laser delivering pulses of 17 ps and its second harmonic. The experiments were performed using the D4σ method combined with the Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refractive indices of third- and fifth-order were determined, as well as the three-photon absorption coefficient, for both wavelengths. A good agreement was found between theory and experiment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113902 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183902 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. J. Dawson and J. H. Andrews, J. Phys. B 45, 035401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. D’Asaro, S. Heidari-Bateni, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, J. Solis, and C. N. Afonso, Opt. Express 17, 17150 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 35, 2550 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Dudley and G. Genty, Phys. Today 66(7), 29 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Zhu, Y. He, B. A. Malomed, and D. Mihalache, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, A1 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. S. Reyna and C. B. de Araújo, Phys. Rev. A 89, 063803 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Borchers, C. Brée, S. Birkholz, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 1541 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Besse, H. Leblond, and G. Boudebs, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043840 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. A. Sacchi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 337 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 20, 1958 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Besse, G. Boudebs, and H. Leblond, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities: the general case,” Appl. Phys. B, doi: 10.1007/s00340-014-5777-2 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Fedus and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 292, 140 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Underwood and C. Wittig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 190 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2014

W. Zhu, Y. He, B. A. Malomed, and D. Mihalache, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, A1 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Reyna and C. B. de Araújo, Phys. Rev. A 89, 063803 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Besse, H. Leblond, and G. Boudebs, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043840 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Fedus and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 292, 140 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley and G. Genty, Phys. Today 66(7), 29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Dawson and J. H. Andrews, J. Phys. B 45, 035401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Borchers, C. Brée, S. Birkholz, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. D’Asaro, S. Heidari-Bateni, A. Pasquazi, G. Assanto, J. Gonzalo, J. Solis, and C. N. Afonso, Opt. Express 17, 17150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Underwood and C. Wittig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

1991

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

Andrews, J. H.

N. J. Dawson and J. H. Andrews, J. Phys. B 45, 035401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Bache, M.

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Besse, V.

V. Besse, H. Leblond, and G. Boudebs, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043840 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Besse, G. Boudebs, and H. Leblond, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities: the general case,” Appl. Phys. B, doi: 10.1007/s00340-014-5777-2 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Birkholz, S.

Borchers, B.

Boudebs, G.

V. Besse, H. Leblond, and G. Boudebs, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043840 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Fedus and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 292, 140 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Besse, G. Boudebs, and H. Leblond, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities: the general case,” Appl. Phys. B, doi: 10.1007/s00340-014-5777-2 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brée, C.

B. Borchers, C. Brée, S. Birkholz, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cassagne, C.

G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chong, A.

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, E.

Dawson, N. J.

N. J. Dawson and J. H. Andrews, J. Phys. B 45, 035401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

A. S. Reyna and C. B. de Araújo, Phys. Rev. A 89, 063803 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Demircan, A.

B. Borchers, C. Brée, S. Birkholz, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

di Trapani, P.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaleva, K.

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley and G. Genty, Phys. Today 66(7), 29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fedus, K.

K. Fedus and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 292, 140 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

Gaižauskas, E.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley and G. Genty, Phys. Today 66(7), 29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, J.

Hagan, D.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Heidari-Bateni, S.

Kolesik, M.

Kucinskas, E.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leblond, H.

V. Besse, H. Leblond, and G. Boudebs, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043840 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, H. Leblond, and C. B. de Araújo, Opt. Lett. 38, 2206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Besse, G. Boudebs, and H. Leblond, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities: the general case,” Appl. Phys. B, doi: 10.1007/s00340-014-5777-2 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

Mihalache, D.

Moloney, J. V.

Newell, A. C.

Pasquazi, A.

Reyna, A. S.

A. S. Reyna and C. B. de Araújo, Phys. Rev. A 89, 063803 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sacchi, C. A.

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skarka, V.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

Steinmeyer, G.

B. Borchers, C. Brée, S. Birkholz, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Opt. Lett. 37, 1541 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tamošauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J.

J. Underwood and C. Wittig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wittig, C.

J. Underwood and C. Wittig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Zhou, B. B.

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

Appl. Phys. B

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kučinskas, G. Tamošauskas, E. Gaižauskas, D. Faccio, and P. di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Boudebs, K. Fedus, C. Cassagne, and H. Leblond, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

J. Underwood and C. Wittig, Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Boudebs and K. Fedus, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 103106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

N. J. Dawson and J. H. Andrews, J. Phys. B 45, 035401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

K. Fedus and G. Boudebs, Opt. Commun. 292, 140 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. Besse, H. Leblond, and G. Boudebs, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043840 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Reyna and C. B. de Araújo, Phys. Rev. A 89, 063803 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, G. Boudebs, H. Leblond, and V. Skarka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 013901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Zhou, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, and M. Bache, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 043902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Dolgaleva, H. Shin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

J. M. Dudley and G. Genty, Phys. Today 66(7), 29 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 086401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Besse, G. Boudebs, and H. Leblond, “Determination of the third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities: the general case,” Appl. Phys. B, doi: 10.1007/s00340-014-5777-2 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

4f imaging system. The sample is scanned along the beam direction around the focal plane (z=0). The labels refer to: lenses (L1, L2, and L3), beam splitters (BS1 and BS2), and mirrors (M1 and M2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

2.46 mm thick quartz cell filled with 2 mm water measured at λ=1064nm with I0=880GW/cm2. The black circles were obtained with water inside the cell; the empty red circles were obtained with the cell alone. (a) Beam waist relative variation versus z; (b) open-aperture normalized Z-scan transmittance. Dashed and solid lines represent the fittings.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

2.46 mm thick quartz cell filled with 2 mm water measured at λ=532nm with I0=290GW/cm2. The filled circles are data obtained with the cell containing water; the red empty circles represent data obtained with the cell alone. (a) Beam waist relative variation versus z; (b) open-aperture normalized Z-scan transmittance. Dashed and solid lines represent the fittings.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effective n2 versus the incident intensity. The data for the empty cell are the squares (circles) at 532 nm (1064 nm). The measured values for water alone are the green stars (blue triangles) at 532 nm (1064 nm). The straight lines represent the linear fitting at 1064 and 532 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dIdz=αIβI2γI3,
dφdz=k(n2I+n4I2),
Δφ=kγ[n2ILI0ILI0+n4ln(ILI0)],
IL=I0(1+2γI02L)1/2.

Metrics