Abstract

A triple-junction RGB optical sensor with vertically stacked photodiodes and signal processing that provides precise values of the currents generated by blue, green, and red light is presented. The signal processing is based on the determination of the border depths of the space-charge regions of all three photodiodes. A current-mode implementation using current conveyors and variable-gain current amplifiers is introduced. The responsivities of all three photodiodes calculated using the proposed approach are in very good agreement with the measured results.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

N. Tadic, M. Zogovic, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 47, 614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Hailer, LED Prof. Rev. 3, 45 (2007).

2006 (1)

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. S. Sedra, G. W. Roberts, and F. Gohh, IEE Proc. G 137, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aimez, V.

Bright, F. V.

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cartwright, A. N.

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charette, P. G.

Chodavarapu, V. P.

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Courcier, T.

Fang, X.

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z. H.

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gaberl, W.

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 47, 614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Tadic, M. Zogovic, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of the 34th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 55–59.

Gohh, F.

A. S. Sedra, G. W. Roberts, and F. Gohh, IEE Proc. G 137, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hailer, F.

F. Hailer, LED Prof. Rev. 3, 45 (2007).

Hsiao, V. K. S.

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, P. M.

P. M. Hubel, in 13th IS&T Color Imaging Conference (2005), pp. 314–317.

Kaniusas, E.

S. Schidl, E. Kaniusas, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 69–72.

Lu, G. N.

Martel, S.

Ouellet, L.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 547–569.

Pittet, P.

Polzer, A.

S. Schidl, A. Polzer, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 48, 1490 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 47, 614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of the 34th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 55–59.

Richard, C.

Roberts, G. W.

A. S. Sedra, G. W. Roberts, and F. Gohh, IEE Proc. G 137, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schidl, S.

S. Schidl, A. Polzer, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 48, 1490 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Schidl, E. Kaniusas, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 69–72.

Sedra, A. S.

A. S. Sedra, G. W. Roberts, and F. Gohh, IEE Proc. G 137, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

Tadic, N.

N. Tadic, M. Zogovic, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Titus, A. H.

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Z.

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, H.

S. Schidl, A. Polzer, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 48, 1490 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 47, 614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Tadic, M. Zogovic, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of the 34th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 55–59.

S. Schidl, E. Kaniusas, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 69–72.

Zogovic, M.

N. Tadic, M. Zogovic, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 47, 614 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Schidl, A. Polzer, and H. Zimmermann, Electron. Lett. 48, 1490 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. G (1)

A. S. Sedra, G. W. Roberts, and F. Gohh, IEE Proc. G 137, 78 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

N. Tadic, M. Zogovic, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 1170 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

X. Fang, V. K. S. Hsiao, V. P. Chodavarapu, A. H. Titus, and A. N. Cartwright, IEEE Sens. J. 6, 661 (2006).
[CrossRef]

LED Prof. Rev. (1)

F. Hailer, LED Prof. Rev. 3, 45 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators B (1)

Z. Zhan, B. Zhou, Z. H. Fu, F. V. Bright, A. N. Cartwright, and A. H. Titus, Sens. Actuators B 176, 729 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 547–569.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

S. Schidl, E. Kaniusas, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of IEEE Sensors Conference (IEEE, 2013), pp. 69–72.

P. M. Hubel, in 13th IS&T Color Imaging Conference (2005), pp. 314–317.

A. Polzer, W. Gaberl, and H. Zimmermann, in Proceedings of the 34th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (IEEE, 2011), pp. 55–59.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section of the VTJ RGB optical sensor with relationships between the currents at the output terminals I1, I2, and I3, and the photodiode currents IPD1, IPD2, and IPD3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SCR BDs at, bt, am, bm, ab, and bb of the VTJ RGB optical sensor with relationships between the photodiode currents IPD1, IPD2, and IPD3, and the currents generated in the SCRs of the photodiodes PD1, PD2, and PD3 by blue, green, and red light: (IB1, IB2, IB3), (IG1, IG2, IG3), and (IR1, IR2, IR3), respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simplified circuit schematic of the VTJ RGB optical sensor with corresponding current-mode signal processing circuit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and calculated responsivity of the top photodiode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured and calculated responsivity of the middle photodiode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured and calculated responsivity of the bottom photodiode.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Wavelengths, Absorption Coefficients, and Measured Responsivities Used for the System in Eq. (10), and Calculated SCR BDs

Tables Icon

Table 2. Coefficients from Eqs. (1)–(3) and (7)–(9) of the Model in Eqs. (4)–(6), and Calculated Blue, Green, and Red Light Currents IB, IG, and IR, for Two Sets of SCR BDs

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b{b21=IB2/IB1=(eαBameαBbm)(eαBateαBbt)1b31=IB3/IB1=(eαBabeαBbb)(eαBateαBbt)1,
g{g21=IG2/IG1=(eαGameαGbm)(eαGateαGbt)1g31=IG3/IG1=(eαGabeαGbb)(eαGateαGbt)1,
r{r21=IR2/IR1=(eαRameαRbm)(eαRateαRbt)1r31=IR3/IR1=(eαRabeαRbb)(eαRateαRbt)1.
IB=(1+b21+b31)(B1I1+B2I2+B3I3),
IG=(1+g21+g31)(G1I1+G2I2+G3I3),
IR=(1+r21+r31)(R1I1+R2I2+R3I3),
R{R1=g21b21+g31(1+b21)b31(1+g21)r31(g21b21)+g31(b21r21)+b31(r21g21)R2=b21+b31g21g31r31(g21b21)+g31(b21r21)+b31(r21g21)R3=g21b21r31(g21b21)+g31(b21r21)+b31(r21g21),
G{G1=[1+b21+R1(r21b21)]/(g21b21)G2=[1R2(r21b21)]/(g21b21)G3=R3(r21b21)/(g21b21),
B{B1=[1+g21+R1(r21g21)]/(g21b21)B2=[1R2(r21g21)]/(g21b21)B3=R3(r21g21)/(g21b21).
Si=qλi(eαiaeαib)/(hc),i{1,2},

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