Abstract

A new methodology for the development of miniature photoacoustic trace gas sensors using 3D printing is presented. A near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) laser is used together with a polymer-based gas cell, off-the-shelf fiber optic collimators, and a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microphone to measure acetylene at 1532.83 nm. The resonance behavior of the miniature gas cell is analyzed using a theoretical and experimental approach, with a measured resonance frequency of 15.25 kHz and a Q-factor of 15. A minimum normalized noise equivalent absorption of 4.5×109Wcm1Hz1/2 is shown together with a 3σ detection limit of 750 parts per billion (ppb) for signal averaging times of 35 s. The fiber-coupled delivery and miniature cost-effective cell design allows for use in multipoint and remote detection applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. s3-20, 305 (1880).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Schmid, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 1071 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Opt. 42, 2119 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Starecki, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 2118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, Opt. Lett. 38, 434 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1672 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Xu, J. Shi, K. Gong, H. Li, R. Hui, and B. Yu, Opt. Lett. 39, 2838 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, and M. A. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1555 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. M. Pellegrino, R. G. Polcawich, and P. M. Road, Proc. SPIE 5085, 52 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Danworaphong, I. G. Calasso, A. Beveridge, G. J. Diebold, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 42, 5561 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, and D. G. Moodie, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 3114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (4)

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, J. Shi, K. Gong, H. Li, R. Hui, and B. Yu, Opt. Lett. 39, 2838 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Ma, Opt. Lett. 38, 434 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Gruca, K. Heeck, J. Rector, and D. Iannuzzi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1672 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Schmid, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 1071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, and M. A. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1880 (1)

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. s3-20, 305 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. s3-20, 305 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B. E.

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beveridge, A.

Bijnen, F. G. C.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bozoki, Z.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calasso, I. G.

Cao, Y.

Capasso, F.

Cho, A. Y.

Danworaphong, S.

Diebold, G. J.

Duffin, K.

Firebaugh, S. L.

S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, and M. A. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Gong, K.

Gorelik, A. V.

A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, R. J.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gruca, G.

Harren, F. J. M.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, D. A.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heeck, K.

Herndon, S. C.

Hess, P.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. L.

Holthoff, E. L.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, L. C.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

Iannuzzi, D.

Jahjah, M.

Jensen, K. F.

S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, and M. A. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Johnstone, W.

Kouzmouk, A. A.

A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kriesel, J.

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liu, K.

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Marinov, D.

J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGettrick, A. J.

Miklos, A.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

Muecke, R.

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Niu, M.

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

Patimisco, P.

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P. M.

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Pellegrino, R. G. Polcawich, and P. M. Road, Proc. SPIE 5085, 52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polcawich, R. G.

P. M. Pellegrino, R. G. Polcawich, and P. M. Road, Proc. SPIE 5085, 52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pushkarsky, M.

Rector, J.

Ren, W.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Reuss, J.

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rey, J. M.

J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Road, P. M.

P. M. Pellegrino, R. G. Polcawich, and P. M. Road, Proc. SPIE 5085, 52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, N. P.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, T.

T. Schmid, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 1071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, and M. A. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Sigrist, M. W.

J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Opt. Lett. 37, 4461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Starecki, T.

T. Starecki, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 2118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Starovoitov, V. S.

A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

Thévenaz, L.

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

M. Jahjah, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, W. Ren, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, S. C. Herndon, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 39, 957 (2014).
[CrossRef]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ulasevich, A. L.

A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, D. E.

J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M. E.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yu, B.

Yuan, Y.

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zah, C.

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Sci. (1)

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. s3-20, 305 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

T. Schmid, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 1071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, P. Patimisco, S. Borri, G. Scamarcio, B. E. Bernacki, and J. Kriesel, Appl. Phys. B 112, 25 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rey, D. Marinov, D. E. Vogler, and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Phys. B 80, 261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Ren, W. Jiang, N. P. Sanchez, P. Patimisco, V. Spagnolo, C. Zah, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 041117 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

E. L. Holthoff, D. A. Heaps, and P. M. Pellegrino, IEEE Sens. J. 10, 572 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

S. Schilt and L. Thévenaz, Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Ulasevich, A. V. Gorelik, A. A. Kouzmouk, and V. S. Starovoitov, Infrared Phys. Technol. 60, 174 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

T. Starecki, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 2118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. L. Firebaugh, K. F. Jensen, and M. A. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1555 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Niu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Yuan, and X. Gao, Opt. Commun. 287, 180 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. M. Pellegrino, R. G. Polcawich, and P. M. Road, Proc. SPIE 5085, 52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. G. C. Bijnen, J. Reuss, and F. J. M. Harren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2914 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, Sensors 14, 6165 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Center cross section of the internal structure of the acoustic resonant cell, including resonator dimensions (in mm) and half-cut schematic of the 3D-printed PAS gas cell, including all additional system components.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretically calculated frequency response of the 3D-printed gas cell; inset: FEM first longitudinal eigenmode shape.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental measurement setup: LDC, laser diode controller; TEC, temperature controller; SG1&2, signal generator; T, bias-T; DFB, 1532 nm laser diode; 3D-PAS, 3D-printed gas cell; and LIA, lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured acoustic frequency response of the 3D-printed PAS sensor (first longitudinal resonance at 15.25 kHz).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

LIA outputs of both channels for 1% C2H2 with (a) m=2 for the 1f signal, and (b) m=2.2 for the 2f signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Time-dependent measurement using calibrated gas concentrations of 1% C2H2 and 100 ppm C2H2 and (b) Allan–Werle deviation plot for 100 ppm C2H2 using a 0.6 s time delay.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p(ω0)αClPL(γ1)ω0VQ,
f0=c2l,
Q=ω0LR=r·ρπc[(γ1)·2κCp+2μ]·l,

Metrics