Abstract

We report an observation of multi-photon excitation of organic chromophores in microbubble whispering gallery mode resonators. High-Q microbubble resonators were formed by heating a pressurized fused silica capillary to form a hollow bubble that was then filled with liquid. In this work, the microbubble was filled with a solution of Rhodamine 6G dye. The resonator and dye were excited by evanescently coupling continuous wave (CW) light from a 980 nm laser diode using a tapered optical fiber. The two-photon fluorescence of the dye can be seen with pump powers as low as 700 μW.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071106 (2012).
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2011 (7)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

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2008 (2)

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C. Zhang, N. C. Anzalone, R. P. Faria, and J. M. Pearce, PLoS ONE 8, e59840 (2013).
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D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
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W. Kaiser and C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229 (1961).
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Gillespie, J.

Gorodetsky, M.

V. Braginsky, M. Gorodetsky, and V. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
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Greve, J.

E. Krioukov, D. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Talanta 65, 1086 (2005).
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E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1504 (2002).
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Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
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Henze, R.

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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
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A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Photonics 5, 293 (2011).
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I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
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Jacques, F.

Jones, R. J.

Jung, Y.

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W. Kaiser and C. G. B. Garrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229 (1961).
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R. Kenny, T. Birks, and K. Oakley, Electron. Lett. 27, 1654 (1991).
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K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
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G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).
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D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
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S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
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G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
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E. Krioukov, D. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Talanta 65, 1086 (2005).
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Knight, J. C.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
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E. Krioukov, D. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Talanta 65, 1086 (2005).
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E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1504 (2002).
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Kubota, S.

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G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).
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W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
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Li, H.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
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Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432 (1992).
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Liang, W.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Photonics 5, 293 (2011).
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Liu, J.

G. Bahl, K. H. Kim, W. Lee, J. Liu, X. Fan, and T. Carmon, Nat. Commun. 4, 1994 (2013).
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Lytle, C.

Makarov, N. S.

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Photonics 5, 293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Photonics 5, 293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
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Moloney, J. V.

Nabors, C. D.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
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Norwood, R. A.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
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Nunzi Conti, G.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, K.

R. Kenny, T. Birks, and K. Oakley, Electron. Lett. 27, 1654 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

E. Krioukov, D. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Talanta 65, 1086 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, Opt. Lett. 27, 1504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paul, J.

Pearce, J. M.

C. Zhang, N. C. Anzalone, R. P. Faria, and J. M. Pearce, PLoS ONE 8, e59840 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

Penzkofer, A.

P. Sperber and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 381 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Petrovich, M. N.

Polzik, E. S.

Rebane, A.

Reddy, K.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Berneschi, D. Farnesi, F. Cosi, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and S. Soria, Opt. Lett. 36, 3521 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Photonics 5, 293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Nat. Photonics 5, 293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, T.

Senthil Murugan, G.

G. Senthil Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 071106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, M. N. Petrovich, Y. Jung, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, Opt. Express 19, 20773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Serpengüzel, A.

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soria, S.

D. Farnesi, A. Barucci, G. C. Righini, S. Berneschi, S. Soria, and G. Nunzi Conti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 093901 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Berneschi, D. Farnesi, F. Cosi, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, G. C. Righini, and S. Soria, Opt. Lett. 36, 3521 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sperber, P.

P. Sperber and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 381 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Sun, Y.

W. Lee, Y. Sun, H. Li, K. Reddy, M. Sumetsky, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 091102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J. D.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, X. Fan, and M. Zourob, Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 139 (2009).

Tada, K.

K. Tada, G. A. Cohoon, K. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, and R. A. Norwood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 430 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, Nat. Phys. 3, 430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, Nat. Methods 5, 591 (2008).
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Wang, T.-L.

Ward, J.

Watkins, A.

Webb, W. W.

White, I. M.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, X. Fan, and M. Zourob, Methods Mol. Biol. 503, 139 (2009).

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nature 450, 1214 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left, microbubble resonator mounted after fabrication. Middle and right, microbubble resonator excited with 980 nm pump light. The dye undergoes two-photon absorption and generates green–yellow fluorescence along the light path. The center is the point of contact between the taper and the resonator. This coupling point is a major scattering point that creates a green ring effect when imaged.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum of two-photon fluorescence for Rhodamine 6G with increasing pump power measured with an ocean optics spectrometer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top, as the pump power was increased, the total two-photon fluorescence signal that was generated increased nonlinearly as expected for this process. Bottom, log plot showing a nonlinear power law dependence of 1.51.

Equations (5)

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F ( t ) = 1 2 ϕ η 2 C σ 2 P 0 A 2 V d V S 2 ( r ) ,
P circ = P i 1 K ( 1 K ( 1 δ γ P circ ) ) 2 ,
γ = C σ 2 ( π D ) 2 V eff Γ ,
V eff 3.4 π 3 / 2 ( λ 2 π n ) 3 ( π n D λ ) 11 / 6
F = 1 2 A γ P 2 .

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