Abstract

In this Letter we demonstrate a fiber link capable of stable time signal transfer utilizing our active long-distance radio frequency (RF) stabilization technology. Taking advantage of the chromatic dispersion in optical fiber, our scheme compensates dynamically the link delay variation by tuning the optical carrier wavelength to phase lock a round-trip RF reference. Since the time signal and the RF reference are carried by the same optical carrier, a highly stable time transfer is achieved at the same time. Experimentally, we demonstrate a stability of the time signal transfer over 50-km fiber with a time deviation of 40 ps at 1-s average and 2.3 ps at 1000-s average. The performance of the RF reference delivery is also tested, with an Allan deviation of 2×1015 at 1000-s average. According to our proposal, a simultaneous stable time and frequency transfer is expected.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (3)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

P. Krehlik, L. Sliwczynski, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

J. Levine, Metrologia 45, S162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tarenghi, Astrophys. Space Sci. 313, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
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2006 (2)

J. F. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. P. Uzan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Brida, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Aben, G.

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, P. Toliver, and T. K. Woodward, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azima, A.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K.

Banwell, T.

A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, P. Toliver, and T. K. Woodward, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Batagelj, B.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

Beye, M.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buczek, L.

P. Krehlik, L. Sliwczynski, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

Calhoun, M.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

Chardonnet, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

Chen, W. L.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cliche, J. F.

J. F. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Daussy, Ch.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, M.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Döbrich, K.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Droste, S.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y. Y.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Föhlisch, A.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gahl, C.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gui, Y.

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

Hänsch, T. W.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hasslinger, U.

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

He, Y.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hou, D.

Hu, W.

Huang, S.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karshenboim, S. G.

S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

Korosec, T.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

Krehlik, P.

P. Krehlik, L. Sliwczynski, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Legero, Th.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Levine, J.

J. Levine, Metrologia 45, S162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, P.

Li, T. C.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Lipinski, M.

P. Krehlik, L. Sliwczynski, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Liu, Q.

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

Lopez, O.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A.

Miao, J.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miho, F.

Miyashita, T.

Mizuhiko, H.

Motohiro, K.

Naglic, L.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

Narbonneau, F.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B.

Pavlovic, L.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

Predehl, K.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raupach, S. M. F.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ren, T.

Santarelli, G.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

Schnatz, H.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shigeo, N.

Shillue, B.

J. F. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sliwczynski, L.

P. Krehlik, L. Sliwczynski, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

Tarenghi, M.

M. Tarenghi, Astrophys. Space Sci. 313, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terra, O.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tjoelker, R.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, P. Toliver, and T. K. Woodward, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tratnik, J.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

Udem, Th.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, S.

Uzan, J. P.

J. P. Uzan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vidmar, M.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

Wang, B.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, R.

Woodward, T. K.

A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, P. Toliver, and T. K. Woodward, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, M.

Xie, W.

Xu, D.

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

Xu, K.

Yamada, J.

Yang, F.

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, F.

Zhang, A.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, J. W.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, X.

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

M. Tarenghi, Astrophys. Space Sci. 313, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. G. Karshenboim, Can. J. Phys. 78, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Control Syst. Mag. (1)

J. F. Cliche and B. Shillue, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 26, 19 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, P. Toliver, and T. K. Woodward, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 24 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

P. Krehlik, L. Sliwczynski, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61, 2844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

J. Levine, Metrologia 45, S162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Gahl, A. Azima, M. Beye, M. Deppe, K. Döbrich, U. Hasslinger, and A. Föhlisch, Nat. Photonics 2, 165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. Tjoelker, Proc. IEEE 95, 1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. P. Uzan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

G. Brida, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, Ch. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Wang, C. Gao, W. L. Chen, J. Miao, X. Zhu, Y. Bai, J. W. Zhang, Y. Y. Feng, T. C. Li, and L. J. Wang, Sci. Rep. 2, 556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, Th. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, Science 336, 441 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Yang, D. Xu, Q. Liu, N. Chen, Y. Gui, and H. Cai, in CLEO: Applications and Technology (Optical Society of America2013), paperJTu4A.99.

J. Tratnik, L. Pavlovic, B. Batagelj, L. Naglic, T. Korosec, and M. Vidmar, in Proceedings of OFC (2010), paper OThH4.

http://www.lightwavestore.com/product_datasheet/FSC-SMF-SPOOL-080C_pdf3.pdf .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle and experimental setup of the proposed time signal transfer scheme. TLS, tunable laser source; CIR,optical circulator; LO, local oscillator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transfer delay variations of the time signal without (black) and with RF reference phase locking (red).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Delay deviation of time signal transfer without (black square) and with (red circle) RF reference phase locking.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Allan deviations of delivered RF reference under different powers of the joint BPSK signal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spurious tones around RF1 due to the MZM modulation nonlinearity and the joint BPSK signal. Insert: the spectrum of RF1 without any other additional modulation.

Equations (2)

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λ0λ1χ(λ)dλ+Δτ=0.
H(Ω)cos(χλ2Ω24πc)×exp(iΩτ),

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