Abstract

A grating-assisted heterogeneous waveguide coupler is designed, fabricated, and demonstrated on a polymer platform. The parallel silicon nitrite core and polymer core are horizontally placed with vertical center alignment accuracy of ±5nm. The coupler is differentially thermally tunable. The temperature gradient distribution, introduced by offset micro-heaters, is studied by thermal simulations. A total tuning range of 82 nm is demonstrated experimentally.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Zhang, N. Keil, and N. Grote, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1734 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

1999

1993

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, U.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arimoto, H.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Backbom, L.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.

Bennion, I.

Brinker, W.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, K. E.

Dainese, M.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Everall, L. A.

Felipe, D.

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grote, N.

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Zhang, N. Keil, and N. Grote, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1734 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Han, Y. T.

Heismann, F.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W. Y.

Iocco, A.

Ju, J. J.

Keil, N.

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Zhang, N. Keil, and N. Grote, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1734 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Kim, J.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Kim, K. S.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Kim, M. S.

Kitatani, T.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Klinga, T.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Lee, H. J.

Limberger, H. G.

Liu, A.

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Zhang, N. Keil, and N. Grote, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1734 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Martyak, M. J. R.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mettbach, N.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Nilsson, S.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y. O.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Y. O. Noh, H. J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M. S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, Opt. Express 16, 18194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oberg, M.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oh, D. K.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Oh, M.-C.

Oh, S. H.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Y. O. Noh, H. J. Lee, J. J. Ju, M. S. Kim, S. H. Oh, and M.-C. Oh, Opt. Express 16, 18194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

Park, S. H.

Qiu, M.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and M. Qiu, Opt. Express 13, 2596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

Schell, M.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Schmidt, D.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. K.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Shin, J. U.

Shinoda, K.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Storz, F.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Swillo, M.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takei, A.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Tanaka, S.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Taniguchi, T.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Tsuji, S.

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

Wallin, J.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Williams, J. A. R.

Wosinski, L.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. H.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

Zawadzki, C.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Zhang, Z.

D. Liu, Z. Zhang, N. Keil, and N. Grote, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1734 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and M. Qiu, Opt. Express 13, 2596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Alferness, T. L. Koch, L. L. Buhl, F. Storz, F. Heismann, and M. J. R. Martyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2011 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, D. Liu, D. Felipe, A. Liu, N. Keil, and N. Grote, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 181105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

S. H. Oh, K. H. Yoon, K. S. Kim, J. Kim, O. Kwon, D. K. Oh, Y. O. Noh, J. K. Seo, and H. J. Lee, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1534 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Oberg, S. Nilsson, K. Streubel, J. Wallin, L. Backbom, and T. Klinga, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Z. Zhang, N. Keil, and N. Grote, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 1734 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron.

Z. Zhang, N. Mettbach, C. Zawadzki, J. Wang, D. Schmidt, W. Brinker, N. Grote, M. Schell, and N. Keil, IET Optoelectron. 5, 226 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

T. Suzuki, H. Arimoto, T. Kitatani, A. Takei, T. Taniguchi, K. Shinoda, S. Tanaka, and S. Tsuji, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD7.

N. Keil, C. Zawadzki, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, N. Mettbach, N. Grote, and M. Schell, in in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWM1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the grating-assisted SiNx and polymer waveguide coupler filter: (a) side view and (b) central top view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Channel transfer spectra at various heating conditions and (b) intensity snapshot in the central horizontal plane of the waveguides, indicating 100% channel transfer from WGN to WGP.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Thermal simulations: (a) and (b) displaced heater-electrode, (c) center symmetric heater–electrode, and (d) sidewall electrode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM photos of the heterogeneous waveguide coupler: (a) far view and (b) detailed view showing the grating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tuning results of the grating coupler. (a) P–P transmission (Drop) and (b) P–N transmission (Transfer).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δk=2πλ(nnnp)2πΛ.
{dA(z)dz=jκexp(jΔkz)B(z)dB(z)dz=jκexp(jΔkz)A(z),
PA(λ,z)=|A(z)|2=κ2σ21cos(2σz)2,
σ=κ2+Δk22.
λ0=(nnnp)Λ.
Δλ0=(nnTnnpTp)ΛΔT=(ΓnΔTnΓpΔTp)Λ.
Γn=(1ρ)ΓP+ρTOCn.

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