The state conversion and terahertz (THz) wave modulation based on a plasmonic device composed of silicon column arrays with vanadium dioxide () coating were experimentally demonstrated. For double 45° tilted optical pumping, a state conversion from dielectric photonic crystal (PC) to metallic PC was demonstrated due to the insulator–metal transition (IMT) of with the pump power increasing. In this process, a broadband intensity modulation with 70% modulation depth was achieved. Furthermore, for normally incident optical pumping, another state conversion from dielectric PC to plasmonic device was also demonstrated due to the partial IMT of , and the out of plane PC resonance gradually changed to be plasmonic resonances. This device and its modulation scheme will be of great significance for potential THz applications.
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