Abstract

We present a beam characterization system for infrared lasers which can measure both wavefront and beam profile with visible detectors. While previous studies demonstrated the conversion from the visible to the near infrared, this device exploits the wavelength conversion from the infrared to the visible, which is based on the refractive index change because of the optical switching of a vanadium dioxide layer. This technique can be applied over a broad spectral range from the visible to the infrared and potentially to the terahertz.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook (CRC, 1999).
  3. ISO/DIS 11146: “Test methods for laser beam parameters—beam widths divergence angle and beam propagation factor,” (1999).
  4. B. Schafer and K. Mann, Appl. Opt. 41, 2809 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Tiziani and J. H. Chen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 535 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.
  7. P. J. Treado, I. W. Levin, and N. Lewis, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 607 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, Nat. Photonics 6, 788 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Bonora, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, R. Balu, and P. V. Ashrit, Opt. Lett. 35, 103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hache, P. A. Do, and S. Bonora, Appl. Opt. 51, 6578 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Balu and P. V. Ashrit, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Bonora, D. Coburn, U. Bortolozzo, C. Dainty, and S. Residori, Opt. Express 20, 5178 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Bonora, Opt. Commun. 284, 3467 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. Schmidt, Numerical Simulation of Optical Wave Propagation (SPIE, 2010).

2012

J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, Nat. Photonics 6, 788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, D. Coburn, U. Bortolozzo, C. Dainty, and S. Residori, Opt. Express 20, 5178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hache, P. A. Do, and S. Bonora, Appl. Opt. 51, 6578 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Bonora, Opt. Commun. 284, 3467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

R. Balu and P. V. Ashrit, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. J. Tiziani and J. H. Chen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

Aellen, T.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashrit, P. V.

Balu, R.

Beck, M.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bonora, S.

S. Bonora, D. Coburn, U. Bortolozzo, C. Dainty, and S. Residori, Opt. Express 20, 5178 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Hache, P. A. Do, and S. Bonora, Appl. Opt. 51, 6578 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, Opt. Commun. 284, 3467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, U. Bortolozzo, S. Residori, R. Balu, and P. V. Ashrit, Opt. Lett. 35, 103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bortolozzo, U.

Capraro, I.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.

H. J. Tiziani and J. H. Chen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Coburn, D.

Coraggia, S.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coreno, M.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dam, J. S.

J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, Nat. Photonics 6, 788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Devetta, M.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Do, P. A.

Faist, J.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frassetto, F.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Gisin, N.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Greivenkamp, J. E.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Gupta, A.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Hache, A.

Karstad, K.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Lerner, S. A.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Levin, I. W.

Lewis, N.

Mann, K.

Marushin, P.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Negro, M.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, C.

J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, Nat. Photonics 6, 788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

Romanin, M.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Schafer, B.

Schmidt, J. D.

J. D. Schmidt, Numerical Simulation of Optical Wave Propagation (SPIE, 2010).

Smith, D.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Spezzani, C.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P.

J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, Nat. Photonics 6, 788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

H. J. Tiziani and J. H. Chen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Treado, P. J.

Trestino, C.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R.

R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook (CRC, 1999).

Villoresi, P.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williby, G.

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

Xiong, B.

C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Bonora, F. Frassetto, S. Coraggia, C. Spezzani, M. Coreno, M. Negro, M. Devetta, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and L. Poletto, Appl. Phys. B 106, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Balu and P. V. Ashrit, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Mod. Opt.

H. J. Tiziani and J. H. Chen, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 535 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. S. Dam, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, and C. Pedersen, Nat. Photonics 6, 788 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Bonora, Opt. Commun. 284, 3467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

C. Chen, X. Yi, X. Zhao, and B. Xiong, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 90, 212 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook (CRC, 1999).

ISO/DIS 11146: “Test methods for laser beam parameters—beam widths divergence angle and beam propagation factor,” (1999).

D. Smith, J. E. Greivenkamp, R. Gappinger, G. Williby, P. Marushin, A. Gupta, S. A. Lerner, S. Clark, J. Lee, and J. Sasian, in Optical Fabrication and Testing of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper OTuC4.

J. D. Schmidt, Numerical Simulation of Optical Wave Propagation (SPIE, 2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top and middle: refractive index and extinction coefficient of the VO2 layer in the high and low (HT and RT) temperature state in the visible spectral range. Bottom: reflectivity change because of the refractive index change. Black line average, red cross data relative to the sample used in this experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for wavefront imaging. DM, deformable mirror; BE, beam expander X5; F1=300mm, F2=100mm; FF, far-field plane. VO2 detector (inset): the structure of the VO2 detector is composed of a CMOS silicon camera and a visible LED illuminator. The position A is used for the measurement of the wavefront while the position B was used for the detection of the far field. Inset: example of hartmangram.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Interferograms measured from the generation of cylindrical wavefronts. First two columns show (a),(d) measurements with the VO2 and (b),(e) comparison with the results obtained with a commercial device in the visible. Third column (c),(f) shows detection of the far-field spot. Third row: (g) simulation and (h) measurement for the far-field distribution obtained from the application of the spherical aberration illustrated in (i).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=(1n1,2)2+k1,22(1+n1,2)2+k1,22,

Metrics