Abstract

A photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) of air hole arrays is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer by using electron-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The designed PCRR is modeled and its performance is simulated by the two-dimensional finite difference time domain method. The simulation results show that the PCRR has two resonant wavelengths, 1598 and 1606 nm, and their corresponding quality factors are 3994 and 4015, respectively. A sample of the PCRR structure is fabricated and tested by the established experimental setup. Compared with the simulation results, the experimental resonant wavelengths drift to some extent and the quality factors are reduced by about one order of magnitude. The fabrication error and irregularity are the main reasons for the above results, which can be further reduced by improving the process technology. In addition, one more resonant wavelength emerged for the PCRR sample, which can be attributed to the change of the coupling strength.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Y. D. Wu, T. T. Shih, and J. J. Lee, Proc. SPIE 7631, 763123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, J. Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

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[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1987 (2)

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A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, J. Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
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Chan, Y. J.

Chang, J. Y.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L. M.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Chiu, T. W. Huang, Y. H. Wu, Y. J. Chan, C. H. Hou, H. T. Chien, and C. C. Chen, Opt. Express 15, 15500(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. T.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H. D.

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H. T.

Chiu, H. K.

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, W. Y.

Choi, W. K.

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-S.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, J. Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Ghaffari, A.

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, J. Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hou, C. H.

W. Y. Chiu, T. W. Huang, Y. H. Wu, Y. J. Chan, C. H. Hou, H. T. Chien, and C. C. Chen, Opt. Express 15, 15500(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, F. L.

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. L.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. W.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V. D.

V. D. Kumar, T. Srinivas, and A. Selvarajan, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 2, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

Y. D. Wu, T. T. Shih, and J. J. Lee, Proc. SPIE 7631, 763123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

C. Pollock and M. Lipson, Integrated Photonics (Kluwer Academic, 2003).

Lo, S. S.

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luan, P. G.

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mai, T. T.

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Monifi, F.

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, J. Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, C.

C. Pollock and M. Lipson, Integrated Photonics (Kluwer Academic, 2003).

Qiang, Z.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, Opt. Express 15, 1823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Selvarajan, A.

V. D. Kumar, T. Srinivas, and A. Selvarajan, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 2, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shih, T. T.

Y. D. Wu, T. T. Shih, and J. J. Lee, Proc. SPIE 7631, 763123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, Opt. Express 15, 1823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, T.

V. D. Kumar, T. Srinivas, and A. Selvarajan, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 2, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ting, Y. C.

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

Wu, Y. D.

Y. D. Wu, T. T. Shih, and J. J. Lee, Proc. SPIE 7631, 763123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Xiang, W.

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, and R. A. Soref, Opt. Express 15, 1823 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. M. Chang, C. H. Hou, Y. C. Ting, C. C. Chen, C. L. Hsu, J. Y. Chang, C. C. Lee, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. S. Lo, H. K. Chiu, and C. C. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

Z. Qiang, W. Zhou, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ma, J. Nanophoton. 2, 023507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Ghaffari, F. Monifi, M. Djavid, and M. S. Abrishamian, J. Opt. Commun. 281, 5929 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. (1)

V. D. Kumar, T. Srinivas, and A. Selvarajan, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 2, 199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. D. Wu, T. T. Shih, and J. J. Lee, Proc. SPIE 7631, 763123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

T. T. Mai, F. L. Hsiao, C. Lee, W. Xiang, C. C. Chen, and W. K. Choi, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 165, 16 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Pollock and M. Lipson, Integrated Photonics (Kluwer Academic, 2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the PCRR structure, where r/a=0.3 and a=420nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission spectra and (b) details of resonant wavelength of 1603.3 nm for the PCRR that are simulated by using 2D FDTD method with nSi=3.48.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure of the SOI with a 220 nm thick silicon slab and a buried thermal oxide of 3 μm thickness; the widths of input and output ports are both 4 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM top view of the fabricated PCRR sample with an average lattice constant 428 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup of the PCRR sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental result of the PCRR sample.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulation result corresponding to D=1.05D, where D is the diameter of the air holes between the PCW and PCRR.

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