Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate the singular surface plasmon beam that presents a dark channel generated by a point dislocation and a long diffraction-free propagation distance up to 70λsp. The singular surface beam is the result of the interference of two surface plasmon polariton (SPP) plane waves, which are launched by two coupling gratings with lateral displacement. An aperture-type near-field scanning optical microscope is used to map the intensity distribution of the singular SPP waves. The propagating point dislocation embedded in the beam is shown by full-wave calculations and is later verified by near-field interference in the experiment.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  2. L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 336, 165 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 188, 307 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. S. Tan, G. H. Yuan, Q. Wang, N. Zhang, D. H. Zhang, and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3287 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, IEE J. Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 105 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Tan, G. H. Yuan, Q. Wang, N. Zhang, D. H. Zhang, and X.-C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 36, 3287 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 188, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, IEE J. Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. L.

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Babiker, M.

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. V.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bourhis, E.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. W.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cluzel, B.

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, M. W.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Founel, F.

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dellinger, J.

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galbraith, C. G.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Galbraith, J. A.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H. W.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gierak, J.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janunts, N.

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klein, A. E.

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lembessis, V. E.

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Milkie, D. E.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Minovich, A.

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D. N.

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 188, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Planchon, T. A.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Righini, M.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schonbrun, E.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, IEE J. Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P. S.

Tetz, K. A.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wang, S. M.

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, IEE J. Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G. H.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhang, C.

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. H.

Zhang, N.

Zhu, S. N.

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEE J. Microwaves Opt. Acoust.

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, IEE J. Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

H. W. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, Nano Lett. 6, 2104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, Nano Lett. 10, 3506 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, S. W. Cho, S. Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, Nano Lett. 10, 529 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 8, 417 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Nature 419, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, Opt. Commun. 177, 297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 188, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. E. Lembessis, M. Babiker, and D. L. Andrews, Phys. Rev. A 79, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, A. E. Klein, N. Janunts, T. Pertsch, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, T. Li, S. M. Wang, C. Zhang, and S. N. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, J. Dellinger, P. Genevet, B. Cluzel, F. de Founel, and F. Capasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Righini, G. Volpe, C. Girard, D. Petrov, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 186804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 336, 165 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, and Y. Lim, Prog. Quantum Electron. 34, 47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics