Abstract

In this Letter we fabricate and characterize suspended silicon (Si) waveguides and ring resonators for mid-infrared wavelength range. Both tunable laser and thermal tuning are used to cover wavelength ranges near 5.2 and 3.4 μm. The loaded quality factors are estimated at 2700 at 5.2 μm and 7900 at 3.4 μm. Heat induced spectrum distortion is observed. Absorption loss is analyzed based on the spectrum distortion, simulation, and all-optical modulation. It is shown that main loss comes from scattering at surface and should be possible to reduce by improving fabrication process.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
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  2. F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
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  5. R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
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  10. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Opt. Express 16, 1659 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455 (2005).
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2012 (3)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 12127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Opt. Express 16, 1659 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, Opt. Express 16, 4309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 31, 341 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Bakhirkin, Y.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Chen, X.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. M.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

Frey, B. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C. K. Y.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hiroi, K.

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Ilic, R.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, Opt. Express 18, 12127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, K.

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kimura, Y.

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D. B.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, Y.

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madison, T. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niwano, M.

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, B.

Scherer, A.

So, S.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

Spector, S. J.

Spott, A.

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. Y.

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 37, 1217 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Miyamoto, K. Ishibashi, K. Hiroi, Y. Kimura, H. Ishii, and M. Niwano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 053902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1510 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wong, Z. Cheng, X. Chen, K. Xu, C. K. Y. Fung, Y. M. Chen, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1095 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Soref, Nat. Photonics 4, 495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

F. K. Tittel, Y. Bakhirkin, A. Kosterev, R. Lewicki, S. So, G. Wysocki, and R. F. Curl, Proc. SPIE 6900, 69000Z(2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732J (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Designed suspended MIR waveguide structure. (b) SEM picture of the fabricated device. The inset is a top-view SEM picture of the coupling gap between the ring and the straight waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized transmission spectra of the ring resonator with a waveguide-to-ring gap of 900nm. The green squares and the blue solid line: measured and fitted spectra with an input optical power of 0.035 mW. The orange triangles and the red dashed line: measured and fitted spectra with an input optical power of 1.46 mW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum near 3.39 μm measured by thermal tuning. Measured on a device with a waveguide-to-ring gap of 360nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Optical modulation measurement setup. (b) Optical modulation response with respect to pump wavelength. (c) Frequency response for optical modulation and fitting curve (the purple stars: experimental result; the orange dashed line: fitting curve; the red solid line: simulation result).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tran=1(1e2γ)(1t2)(1teγ)2+4teγsin2(ϕ2),
ϕ=2π2Dλ[neff+neffλ(λλ0)],
ϕ=2π2Dλ[neff+neffT(TT0)].
ϕ=2π2Dλ[neff+neffλ(λλ0)+neffTηPA(1Tran)K].

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