Abstract

The time behavior of gas plasma induced by a few-cycle laser pulse with a simultaneously incident terahertz (THz) pulse is investigated via a transient photocurrent model. The results show that the second-harmonic intensity emitted from the gas plasma can well replicate the THz waveform if the laser pulse has a fixed carrier envelope phase. Based on these we propose a approach for THz coherent detection, which could realize coherent THz detection with very low laser energies and without a bias field, and may be very useful in some fields, such as remote THz sensing.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X.-C. Zhang and J. Z. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, 2009).
  3. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liu, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Y. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Wang, K. J. Wang, J. S. Liu, H. M. Dai, and Z. G. Yang, Opt. Express 20, 19264 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Y. Kim, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA15.

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Liu, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. Y. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Babushkin, I.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bergé, L.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. M.

Dai, J.

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA15.

Köhler, C.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kreß, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

Löffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, Opt. Express 15, 4577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, K. J.

Woerner, M.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 30, 2805 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Z.

X.-C. Zhang and J. Z. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, 2009).

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. G.

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and J. Z. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, 2009).

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, and C. Fletcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, Y. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, and H. G. Roskos, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, Nature 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. Sheng, New J. Phys. 10, 043001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

K. Y. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 056706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Y. Kim, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA15.

X.-C. Zhang and J. Z. Xu, Introduction to THz Wave Photonics (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of an approach to realize gas plasma THz sensing. The plasma is induced by a few-cycle laser pulse with fixed CEP. (b) Time variation of the electric field of laser pulses with different values of CEP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(c) Calculated I2ω0 as the functions of time interval Δt and laser pulse ϕCEP when W=5, 50, and 80 μJ, respectively. (d)–(i) I2ω0 signal waveforms obtained at some special CEP. The TFWHM of the laser pulse is 6 fs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time dependence of (a) Eω0(t) and (b), (c) plasma density rate of rise dNe/dt multiplied by Eω0/|Eω0| for ϕCEP=0 and π/2 when W=5 and 50 μJ, respectively. The dashed–dotted curves in (c) are those assumed suffering no gas depletion effect. Note that dNe/dt is always positive; it is multiplied by Eω0/|Eω0| to distinguish the contributions from ± laser E-fields.

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