Abstract

Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films are grown by RF sputtering onto an indium tin oxide bottom electrode on a MgO single-crystal substrate. We have studied here the optical properties by the prism coupling technique. We report the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the films, the film thickness, and the optical losses that are obtained on the planar waveguides: n0=2.224±0.001 and ne=2.219±0.001 at 1539 nm. Furthermore, in order to demonstrate the active property of the BTO films, we have investigated the electro-optic (EO) properties by using the change of the resonant coupling angle (variation of fundamental TE0 guided mode) when the transverse electric field is applied. The latter is induced by the refractive index variation (Δn) caused by the EO effect when a static electric field is applied transversely to the film. The EO coefficient obtain is about 18pm/V for TE mode and 23pm/V for TM modes at 1539 nm. This value illustrates the suitability of the BTO material thin film with a polycrystalline structure for applications such as modulations, switching, and interconnections.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D.-Y. Wang, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Thin Solid Films 510, 329 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Wessels, J. Electroceram. 13, 135 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Qiao and X. Bi, Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2511 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, Opt. Express 12, 5962 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Qiao and X. Bi, Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Wang, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Thin Solid Films 510, 329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wessels, J. Electroceram. 13, 135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, Opt. Express 12, 5962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Androussi, Y.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bensalah, M.

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bi, X.

L. Qiao and X. Bi, Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biegalski, M.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bley, V.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, C.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buck, V.

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.

D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. L. W.

D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Wang, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Thin Solid Films 510, 329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-Q.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, E.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choy, C.

D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choy, C. L.

D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Wang, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Thin Solid Films 510, 329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, C. W.

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Decoster, D.

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Despax, B.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dogheche, E.

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eom, C.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G.

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gartner, M.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavrila, R.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guilloux-Viry, M.

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamano, T.

Ho, S. T.

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ianculescu, A.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S.-M.

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lebey, T.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loulergue, J.

A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meier, A.

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, Opt. Express 12, 5962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, D.

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Modreanu, M.

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patriarche, G.

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pavlidis, D.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petraru, A.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, L.

L. Qiao and X. Bi, Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, Y. K. V.

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, P.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remiens, D.

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, S.

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, A.

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schlom, D.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharan, A.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, A.

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sulkowski, M.

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, Opt. Express 12, 5962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Towner, D.

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, Opt. Express 12, 5962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Troadec, D.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ueker, R.

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Y.

D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Wang, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Thin Solid Films 510, 329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B.

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, Opt. Express 12, 5962 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wessels, J. Electroceram. 13, 135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. Stolz, E. Cho, E. Dogheche, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Wang, S. Li, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, C. W. Conrad, G. Ford, B. W. Wessels, and S. T. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, S.-M. Ko, G. Patriarche, E. Dogheche, Y.-H. Cho, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021905 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Ianculescu, M. Gartner, B. Despax, V. Bley, T. Lebey, R. Gavrila, and M. Modreanu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Wang, S. Li, H. Chan, and C. Choy, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S52 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Tang, D. Towner, A. Meier, and B. Wessels, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Boudrioua, J. Loulergue, E. Dogheche, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousseau, M. Guilloux-Viry, E. Dogheche, M. Bensalah, and D. Remiens, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 093106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroceram. (1)

B. Wessels, J. Electroceram. 13, 135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. K. V. Reddy, D. Mergel, S. Reuter, V. Buck, and M. Sulkowski, J. Phys. D 39, 1161 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. Qiao and X. Bi, Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2511 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

K. Choi, M. Biegalski, Y. Li, A. Sharan, J. Schubert, R. Ueker, P. Reiche, Y. Chen, X. Pan, V. Gopalan, L.-Q. Chen, D. Schlom, and C. Eom, Science 306, 1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D.-Y. Wang, H. L. W. Chan, and C. L. Choy, Thin Solid Films 510, 329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) AFM and (b) SEM images of 1.2 μm BTO film deposited on ITO/MgO (001).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic cross section of the EO measurement setup using the prism coupling technique.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion of the refractive index ina BTO optical waveguide structure deposited on ITO/MgO substrate (for TE and TM polarizations).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effective index variation in BTO obtained by applying a DC voltage.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of Δn as a function of the applied electric field.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Deposition Conditions of ITO Electrodes and BTO Thin Film

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δα=dαdnΔn=dαdNmdNmdnΔn,
Δn=12n3rcE,

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