Abstract

Polarization spectroscopy in He4 around 1083 nm is observed and optimized with a distributed feedback fiber laser and is applied for frequency stabilization. In order to improve the accuracy and long-term stability of the frequency-locking performance, a power stabilization module is added, and the dependences of the peak-to-peak amplitude and frequency difference (width) of the polarization spectroscopy signal on various pump and probe powers are investigated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. R. Keyser, J. A. Rice, and L. D. Schearer, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4163 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. D. McGregor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1067 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Guttin, J. M. Leger, and F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. IV 4, 655 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Chéron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. L. Bohler and B. I. Marton, Opt. Lett. 19, 1346 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, and T. Hasegawa, Opt. Commun. 285, 4107 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Yoshikawa, T. Umeki, T. Mukae, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, Appl. Opt. 42, 6645 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, Opt. Lett. 37, 118 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Ohtsubo, T. Aoki, and Y. Torii, Opt. Lett. 37, 2865 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Pahwa, L. Mudarikwa, and J. Goldwin, Opt. Express 20, 17456 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Pichler and D. C. Hall, Opt. Commun. 285, 50 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, and T. Hasegawa, Opt. Commun. 285, 4107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pichler and D. C. Hall, Opt. Commun. 285, 50 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, Opt. Lett. 37, 118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Ohtsubo, T. Aoki, and Y. Torii, Opt. Lett. 37, 2865 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Pahwa, L. Mudarikwa, and J. Goldwin, Opt. Express 20, 17456 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Chéron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. L. Bohler and B. I. Marton, Opt. Lett. 19, 1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Guttin, J. M. Leger, and F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. IV 4, 655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. D. McGregor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1067 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1961

A. R. Keyser, J. A. Rice, and L. D. Schearer, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, Opt. Lett. 37, 118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. R.

P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

Aspect, A.

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bohler, C. L.

Busch, H. C.

P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C.

Chéron, B.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Chéron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cox, S. G.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fuhr, J. R.

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerz, C.

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, H.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Chéron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldwin, J.

Griffin, P. F.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guttin, C.

C. Guttin, J. M. Leger, and F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. IV 4, 655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. C.

M. Pichler and D. C. Hall, Opt. Commun. 285, 50 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, J.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Chéron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, and T. Hasegawa, Opt. Commun. 285, 4107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, I. G.

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwakuni, K.

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, and T. Hasegawa, Opt. Commun. 285, 4107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Javaux, C.

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. P. A.

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keyser, A. R.

A. R. Keyser, J. A. Rice, and L. D. Schearer, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kuga, T.

Kulatunga, P.

P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwee, P.

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J. M.

C. Guttin, J. M. Leger, and F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. IV 4, 655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lochead, G.

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marton, B. I.

McGregor, D. D.

D. D. McGregor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1067 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Millen, J.

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mudarikwa, L.

Mukae, T.

Müller, U.

J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsubo, N.

Okubo, S.

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, and T. Hasegawa, Opt. Commun. 285, 4107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pahwa, K.

Pearman, C. P.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. O. P.

J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, M.

M. Pichler and D. C. Hall, Opt. Commun. 285, 50 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rice, J. A.

A. R. Keyser, J. A. Rice, and L. D. Schearer, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schearer, L. D.

A. R. Keyser, J. A. Rice, and L. D. Schearer, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Shi, C.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

C. Guttin, J. M. Leger, and F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. IV 4, 655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sukenik, C. I.

P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, J. W.

J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Torii, Y.

Umeki, T.

Vansteenkiste, N.

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weatherill, K. J.

Wieman, C.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willke, B.

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, Y.

Zhang, X.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 102, 515 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

C. Yin, J. Qian, X. Zhang, C. Shi, H. Wang, and S. Huang, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28, 094204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

C. Javaux, I. G. Hughes, G. Lochead, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, Eur. Phys. J. D 57, 151 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. R. Keyser, J. A. Rice, and L. D. Schearer, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

C. P. Pearman, C. S. Adams, S. G. Cox, P. F. Griffin, D. A. Smith, and I. G. Hughes, J. Phys. B 35, 5141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

W. L. Wiese and J. R. Fuhr, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38, 565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. II

N. Vansteenkiste, C. Gerz, R. Kaiser, L. Hollberg, C. Salomon, and A. Aspect, J. Phys. II 1, 1407 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV

C. Guttin, J. M. Leger, and F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. IV 4, 655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. W. Thomsen, N. C. R. Holme, U. Müller, and J. O. P. Pedersen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, and T. Hasegawa, Opt. Commun. 285, 4107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Kulatunga, H. C. Busch, L. R. Andrews, and C. I. Sukenik, Opt. Commun. 285, 2851 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pichler and D. C. Hall, Opt. Commun. 285, 50 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Chéron, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. McGregor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1067 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Relevant energy levels of the He4 atom and the corresponding three transition lines (not to scale). The inset table shows the wavelength (in air) and the oscillation strength f value for each line [19].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. AOM, acoustic optical modulator; PD, photodiode; PBS, polarization beam splitter; NPBS, nonpolarization beam splitter; RF, radio-frequency excitation (33 MHz); ND, neutral density filter; HVA, high-voltage amplifier. The dashed block diagram at top is used for power stabilization, while the diagram at bottom is for polarization spectroscopy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization spectroscopy for the D1 transition line of He4 with φ=π/4. (a) Individual spectra for IX (red line) and IY (black line). (b) Dispersive difference signal ID.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of polarization spectroscopy on pump and probe power. (a) Peak-to-peak amplitude (red line) and width (black line) versus pump power. (b) Slope near the zero-crossing point versus pump power. The probe power is fixed at 0.5 mW. (c) The peak-to-peak amplitude (red line) and width (black line) versus probe power. The pump power is fixed at 8 mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frequency fluctuation for the free-running and stabilization case in 500 s duration each. The inset figure depicts detailed frequency fluctuation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IX=I0[eα+L+eαL+2cos(2φ+ΔkL)eαL],
IY=I0[eα+L+eαL2cos(2φ+ΔkL)eαL],
ID=4I0Δα0Lx1+x2eαL,

Metrics