Abstract

Imaging the retina at high resolution requires a dilated pupil, which in turn exposes more corneal irregularities. We diminish the optical errors of the cornea by refractive index matching. Lens-fitted goggles were used for corneal immersion, to reduce its aberrations, while keeping the ocular power. An additional aspheric plate reduced the residual ocular spherical aberration. A comparison of the index-matching-based retinal images with those acquired directly shows resolution improvement for subjects with normal extent of ocular aberrations. A simulation of the point spread function, obtained from an averaged ocular and corneal wavefront error, also reveals substantial improvement when using corneal index matching. The demonstrated improvement using index matching may enable further improvement of current retinal imaging techniques or relaxing requirements for active ocular aberration correction.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

N. Meitav and E. N. Ribak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1395 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Meitav and E. N. Ribak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, and R. Held, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, Vis. Res. 42, 1611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 1(1), 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, Vis. Res. 42, 1611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 1(1), 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belyakov, A.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benito, A.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, Vis. Res. 42, 1611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berrio, E.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 1(1), 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castejón-Mochón, J. F.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, Vis. Res. 42, 1611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cherezova, T.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I. G.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dai, E.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dubinin, A.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, A. V.

Gruppetta, S.

Guirao, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 1(1), 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gwiazda, J.

He, J. C.

Held, R.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kasprzak, H.

Koch, D. D.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, A.

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, F.

López-Gil, N.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, Vis. Res. 42, 1611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meitav, N.

Nathoo, A.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pierscionek, B. K.

Porter, J.

Puget, P.

Ribak, E. N.

Siedlecki, D.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, F.

Wang, L.

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 1(1), 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Meitav and E. N. Ribak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 221910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (2)

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Vis. (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 1(1), 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Vis. Res. (1)

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, Vis. Res. 42, 1611 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Averaged PSF of whole eyes without index matching. (b) Averaged PSF after corneal index matching [wavefront error calculated according to Eq. (1)], the deterioration in the PSF is mostly due to unbalanced spherical aberration of the crystalline lens, as is evident from the (c) corresponding residual wavefront error. (d) By correcting the spherical aberration by an aspheric plate, the Strehl ratio of the index matching setup is 2.3 times better than (a). All PSFs were normalized by the maximal value of (d). All PSFs share the same color map.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Corneal index matching retinal camera. (b) Comparison of magnification of both setups producing the same intensity profile within the optic disc of the same subject (index matching setup—red dashed curve). (c) Part of a retinal image, in the direct setup, and a corresponding section with corneal index matching and spherical aberration compensation (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Power spectrum of the retina, with corneal index matching (dashed red) and the direct setup (solid blue). Improvement is measured at relative power of 0.1 (dashed line). (b) The power spectra excursions after removal of the local mean power (and different offsets for clarity). The dashed lines estimate the highest frequency peaks (above 3%). (c) The estimated PSFs of the two imaging approaches. Data in (a)–(c) from subject S1. (d) Power spectra of an astigmatic eye along the astigmatic direction in the two setups.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Improvement Using Corneal Index Matching by Different Criteriaa

Equations (1)

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Windex matching=(WeyeWcornea)+0.1Wcornea,

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