Abstract

We report highly birefringent fiber Bragg gratings in standard single-mode optical fiber realized with UV femtosecond pulses and line-by-line inscription. By controlling the three-dimensional positioning of the focused laser beam with respect to the fiber core, we achieve very high birefringence at the grating location in a single exposure. A maximum birefringence value of 7.93×104 has been reached for 10th-order gratings when using 2 μJ pulses, which is to our knowledge the highest birefringence value reported so far. This birefringence results from UV-induced high-densification lines shifted from the center of the core, increasing the asymmetry of the induced-stress lines. With a Bragg wavelength spacing reaching more than 800 pm between polarization modes, such gratings are particularly well suited for selective filtering or, as demonstrated here, for temperature-insensitive transverse-strain measurements.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

2011

2010

2009

2007

P. Lu, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 779 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 6770, 677002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, T. Ernst, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 271, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1999

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. A. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Allsop, T.

Anuszkiewicz, A.

Bennett, T. A.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. A. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

G. N. Smith, T. Allsop, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, R. Neal, K. Sugden, P. Culverhouse, and I. Bennion, Opt. Express 19, 363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, C. Mou, M. Dubov, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

Bette, S.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, T. Ernst, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 271, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chehura, E.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, P.

Douay, M.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

K. Zhou, C. Mou, M. Dubov, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dürr, F.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, T.

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, T. Ernst, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 271, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, L. A.

Fertein, E.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Fuerbach, A.

Garcia-Olcina, R.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geernaert, T.

Grenier, J. R.

Grobnic, D.

Herman, P. R.

Hindle, F.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

Kalli, K.

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimek, J.

Komodromos, M.

Koutsides, C.

Lawrence, C. M.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. A. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Makara, M.

Marques, P. V. S.

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

Mégret, P.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, T. Ernst, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 271, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

Mihailov, S. J.

Mou, C.

K. Zhou, C. Mou, M. Dubov, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

Neal, R.

Nelson, D. V.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. A. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, T. Ernst, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 271, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Olszewskic, J.

Poturaj, K.

Przygodzki, C.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skorupski, K.

Smith, G. N.

Sonnenfeld, C.

Staines, S. E.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Steel, M. J.

Sugden, K.

Szczurowski, M. K.

Tarnowski, K.

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Thomas, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Udd, E.

E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 6770, 677002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. A. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

Williams, R. J.

Winick, K. A.

Withford, M. J.

Wojcik, J.

Wuilpart, M.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.-C.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. Zhou, C. Mou, M. Dubov, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

K. Zhou, C. Mou, M. Dubov, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Dürr, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Hindle, M. Douay, E. Fertein, and C. Przygodzki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4983 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 1170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech.

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. A. Bennett, Exp. Mech. 39, 202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, R. Garcia-Olcina, M. Wuilpart, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and P. Mégret, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 966 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, C. Mou, M. Dubov, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, T. Ernst, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Opt. Commun. 271, 303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 6770, 677002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, Smart Mater. Struct. 13, 888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup for FBG inscription. (b) Schematic top view of LbL FBG inscription. (c) Transverse view of the induced modification in the core (circle) and surrounded cladding area.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection (R) and transmission spectra (Tx and Ty for two orthogonal states of linear polarization and unpolarized T) for the 10th-order 10 mm LbL FBG written with 2 μJ UV femtosecond beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microscope image in reflection of the 10th-order LbL FBG. Inset: Close-up of the FBG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Temperature behavior. (b) Bragg peak separation (Δλ) transverse-load sensitivity versus relative orientation of the optical fiber for the 10th-order LbL FBG. The curve is a guide for the eye.

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