Abstract

In this Letter, we demonstrate a way to make single-crystal LiNbO3 optical fibers with silica glass cladding and In2O3-SnO (ITO) electrodes embedded between core and cladding with a one-step drawing process with the CO2 laser-heated pedestal growth technique. A half-wave voltage (Vπ) of 6.6 V, effective electro-optic coefficient of 23.6pm/V, and transmission loss of 0.89dB/cm was achieved in the single-crystal LiNbO3 optical fiber with core diameter of 9 μm and electrode distance of 50 μm. Furthermore, the technique can be applicable to make other single-crystal core optical fibers with ITO-embedded electrodes, which could potentially enable many electrically tunable fiber devices along with the unique property of the single-crystal core.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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Z. Zang, Opt. Commun. 285, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zang and Y. Zhang, Appl. Opt. 51, 3424 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Z.-G. Zang and W.-X. Yang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

2005 (1)

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1974 (1)

A. S. Pine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1683 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Al-Raweshidy, H. S.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, in Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 1999), pp. 674–677.

Ananthamurthy, R. V.

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. W.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Bagratashvili, V. N.

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barto, R. R.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Bartwal, K. S.

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, J.

Bedworth, P. V.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Berlemont, D.

Bhagavannarayana, G.

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhatti, A.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, in Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 1999), pp. 674–677.

Blows, J. L.

Budakoti, G. C.

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.-H.

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, P. V.

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claesson, Å.

Ermer, S.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Fank, C. W.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Fejer, M. M.

M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fokine, M.

Fujimura, M.

M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, P.

Huang, S.-L.

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-C.

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Kazansky, P. G.

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kjellberg, L.

Knape, H.

Krummenacher, L.

Kumar, B.

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, M.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Leonberger, F. J.

Liu, L.-W.

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Ma, H.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Moosmüller, H.

Murtaza, G.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, in Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 1999), pp. 674–677.

Nightingale, J. L.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, L. E.

Pine, A. S.

A. S. Pine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1683 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ren, A. S.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Rybaltovskii, A. O.

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), Chaps. 6 and 19.

She, C.-Y.

Takizawa, K.

Tang, H.-Z.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Taylor, R. E.

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), Chaps. 6 and 19.

Thorncraft, D.

Tsypina, S. I.

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vance, J. D.

Wang, J.-S.

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-L.

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Ferroelectric Materials and Their Applications (Elsevier, 1991).

Yang, W.-X.

Z.-G. Zang and W.-X. Yang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zang, Z.

Zang, Z.-G.

Z.-G. Zang and W.-X. Yang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zavorotny, Y. S.

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. O. Rybaltovskii, Y. S. Zavorotny, P. V. Chernov, V. N. Bagratashvili, S. I. Tsypina, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1578 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W.-L. Wang, J.-S. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, L.-W. Liu, S.-L. Huang, and W.-H. Cheng, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1628 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1513 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1)

R. R. Barto, C. W. Fank, P. V. Bedworth, R. E. Taylor, W. W. Anderson, S. Ermer, A. K.-Y. Jen, J. D. Luo, H. Ma, H.-Z. Tang, M. Lee, and A. S. Ren, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 39, 7566 (2006).

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

G. Bhagavannarayana, R. V. Ananthamurthy, G. C. Budakoti, B. Kumar, and K. S. Bartwal, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 38, 768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z.-G. Zang and W.-X. Yang, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 103106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

A. S. Pine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 64, 1683 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Zang, Opt. Commun. 285, 521 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991), Chaps. 6 and 19.

A. Bhatti, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and G. Murtaza, in Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (IEEE, 1999), pp. 674–677.

Y. Xu, Ferroelectric Materials and Their Applications (Elsevier, 1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Process flow of coating two ITO electrodes on the upper and lower surfaces of a 70 μm LiNbO3 rod.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic illustration of fabrication of ITO electrode-embedded double-cladding single-crystal LiNbO3 optical fiber by the CO2-LHPG technique.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Micrograph of ITOEE-DC-SC-LOF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic electrode layout in ITOEE-DC-SC-LOF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plots of output power versus applied voltage for four different ITOEE-DC-SC-LOFs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Resistivity of ITOEE-DC-SC-LOF with Core Diameter of 15 μm, Electrode Distance 70 μm, ITO Thickness of 300 nm, and Overall Diameter of 360 μm under Various Annealing Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2. Core Size, Electrode Spacing, Electrode Length, Effective EO Coefficient, and Transmission Loss of Four ITOEE-DC-SC-LOFs

Equations (1)

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r33=λdn3VπL,

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