Abstract

We present a digital postprocessing linearization technique to efficiently suppress dynamic distortions added to a wideband signal in an analog optical link. Our technique achieves up to 35 dB suppression of intermodulation distortions over multiple octaves of signal bandwidth. In contrast to conventional linearization methods, it does not require excessive analog bandwidth for performing digital correction. This is made possible by regenerating undesired distortions from the captured output, and subtracting it from the distorted digitized signal. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate a record spurious-free dynamic range of 120dB·Hz2/3 over a 6 GHz electrical signal bandwidth. While our digital broadband linearization technique advances state-of-the-art optical links, it can also be applied to other nonlinear dynamic systems.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 50, 877 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. S. Chang, RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links (Cambridge University, 2002).
  4. T. Darcie and G. Bodeep, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 38, 524 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cox, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 139, 4 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Takahashi, K. Nagano, and Y. Takasaki, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1382 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. I. Ackerman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 2271 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Sadhwani and B. Jalali, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3180 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Shah and B. Jalali, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 16 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Chou, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 13, 15 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Karim and J. Devenport, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 5 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Fard, S. Gupta, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 36, 1077 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. A. Lab Systems LTD., http://www.lab-systems.com .
  19. Photonic Systems, Inc., http://www.photonicsinc.com .
  20. Optical Zonu, http://www.opticalzonu.com .

2011 (1)

2007 (3)

A. Karim and J. Devenport, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Shah and B. Jalali, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 13, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 50, 877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. I. Ackerman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 2271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Cox, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 139, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

T. Darcie and G. Bodeep, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 38, 524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, K. Nagano, and Y. Takasaki, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1382 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E. I.

E. I. Ackerman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 2271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bodeep, G.

T. Darcie and G. Bodeep, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 38, 524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 13, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S.

W. S. Chang, RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links (Cambridge University, 2002).

Chou, H.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 13, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 139, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T.

T. Darcie and G. Bodeep, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 38, 524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Devenport, J.

A. Karim and J. Devenport, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fard, A.

Gupta, S.

Hargreaves, J.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

A. Fard, S. Gupta, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 36, 1077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 13, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shah and B. Jalali, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sadhwani and B. Jalali, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, L.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juodawlkis, P.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karim, A.

A. Karim and J. Devenport, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, K.

Y. Takahashi, K. Nagano, and Y. Takasaki, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1382 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, F.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prince, J.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, A.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodwell, M.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sadhwani, R.

Seeds, A.

A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 50, 877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

A. Shah and B. Jalali, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, K. Nagano, and Y. Takasaki, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1382 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takasaki, Y.

Y. Takahashi, K. Nagano, and Y. Takasaki, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1382 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Twitchell, J.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, J.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Younger, R.

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zibar, D.

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (2)

C. Cox, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 139, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shah and B. Jalali, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

Y. Takahashi, K. Nagano, and Y. Takasaki, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1382 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Karim and J. Devenport, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. Johansson, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, and L. Coldren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. (7)

P. Juodawlkis, J. Twitchell, G. Betts, J. Hargreaves, R. Younger, J. Wasserman, F. O’Donnell, K. Ray, and R. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 42, 2642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Ackerman, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 47, 2271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. Betts, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 45, 1375 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 54, 906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Seeds, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 50, 877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Darcie and G. Bodeep, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. 38, 524 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

J. Chou, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, Opt. Express 13, 15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

A. A. Lab Systems LTD., http://www.lab-systems.com .

Photonic Systems, Inc., http://www.photonicsinc.com .

Optical Zonu, http://www.opticalzonu.com .

W. S. Chang, RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links (Cambridge University, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a typical IMDD analog optical link.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram of the proposed method for digital broadband linearization of an analog optical link. X is the original signal and X is the ith-order nonlinear distortion.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output power versus input power for two different frequency sets. (a) Fundamental tones at 1 and 1.1 GHz, resulting in third-order intermodulation distortions at 900 MHz and 1.2 GHz. (b) Fundamental tones at 6 and 6.1 GHz, resulting in third-order intermodulation distortions at 5.9 and 6.2 GHz.

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