Abstract

We demonstrate a fiber-tip photoacoustic spectrometric sensor for trace gas detection. The sensor head is a miniature fiber-tip hollow-cavity with a deflectable polymer diaphragm. Periodic light absorption of gas molecules within the cavity generates an acoustic pressure wave, which causes deflection of the diaphragm. The hollow cavity also is a Fabry–Perot interferometer with which the diaphragm deflection is detected with high sensitivity. Experimental test around the P(9) absorption line of C2H2 achieved a minimum detectable gas concentration of 4.3 ppm with an excitation laser power of 8 mW. The miniature sensor head and fiber optic detection system make this type of spectrometers ideally suited for remote and space-limited applications as well as for multipoint detection in a multiplexed fiber optic sensor network.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Haisch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23, 012001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Opt. 42, 2119 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. I. Khalil, M. A. Gondal, and N. Al-Suliman, Appl. Phys. B 103, 441 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Wilcken and J. Kauppinen, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1087 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Breguet, J. P. Pellaux, and N. Gisin, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 48, 29 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Cibula and D. Donlagic, Appl. Opt. 44, 2736 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, Opt. Lett. 37, 2493 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Nesson, M. Yu, and X. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Xu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 3269 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

C. Haisch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23, 012001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, Opt. Lett. 37, 2493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. I. Khalil, M. A. Gondal, and N. Al-Suliman, Appl. Phys. B 103, 441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nesson, M. Yu, and X. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Xu, X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 30, 3269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cibula and D. Donlagic, Appl. Opt. 44, 2736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Breguet, J. P. Pellaux, and N. Gisin, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 48, 29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Al-Suliman, N.

A. A. I. Khalil, M. A. Gondal, and N. Al-Suliman, Appl. Phys. B 103, 441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Bozóki, Z.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breguet, J.

J. Breguet, J. P. Pellaux, and N. Gisin, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 48, 29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cibula, E.

Cooper, K. L.

Curl, R. F.

Dai, J. Y.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Donlagic, D.

Fonsen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

J. Breguet, J. P. Pellaux, and N. Gisin, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 48, 29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gondal, M. A.

A. A. I. Khalil, M. A. Gondal, and N. Al-Suliman, Appl. Phys. B 103, 441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haisch, C.

C. Haisch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23, 012001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. L.

J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, Opt. Lett. 37, 2493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, Opt. Lett. 37, 2493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilcken and J. Kauppinen, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1087 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, A. A. I.

A. A. I. Khalil, M. A. Gondal, and N. Al-Suliman, Appl. Phys. B 103, 441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koskinen, V.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miklós, A.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, I. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nesson, S.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, and X. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

Pellaux, J. P.

J. Breguet, J. P. Pellaux, and N. Gisin, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 48, 29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pushkarsky, M.

Qi, L.

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, K.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serebryakov, D. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, J.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Webber, M. E.

Wilcken, K.

Xu, J.

Yang, Y.

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, and X. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, and X. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

Y. Cao, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, L. Qi, and Y. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 109, 359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. A. I. Khalil, M. A. Gondal, and N. Al-Suliman, Appl. Phys. B 103, 441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, and X. Zhang, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Haisch, Meas. Sci. Technol. 23, 012001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, and Z. Bozóki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

J. Breguet, J. P. Pellaux, and N. Gisin, Sens. Actuators A Phys. 48, 29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

Q. Wang, J. Wang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 153, 214 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the miniature fiber-tip sensor head. An EFPI is formed between the fiber end of the diaphragm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(c) Schematics showing the fabrication process of the sensor head. (d) Photo of the sensor head.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflection spectrum of the diaphragm-based EFPI prepared for PAS gas sensing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup of the fiber-tip PAS gas detection system. The blue lines show the optical path while the black lines show the electrical path. The detailed structure of the sensor head is given in Fig. 1. λe and λp denote the excitation laser and probe laser, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Second harmonic signal detected around the P(9) absorption line of C2H2 gas. The gas concentration is 1%.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of second harmonic PA signal on gas concentration.

Metrics