Abstract

We report a method for real-time monitoring of vapor uptake by simultaneous detection of the refractive index, n, and thickness, d, of thin transparent films with a precision of δn=104 and δd<100nm. The setup combines total internal reflection (Abbé) refractometry with an interferometric imaging method. A fast Fourier transform and phase fitting method is applied for accurate and independent determination of refractive indices and thicknesses. While the uptake of acetone vapor by polydimethylsiloxane is investigated, the system is also suited for characterization of other solid and liquid films.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Howley, B. D. MacCraith, K. O’Dwyer, H. Masterson, P. Kirwan, and P. McLoughlin, Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 400 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.
  4. K. Reddy and X. D. Fan, Opt. Express 20, 966 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Taya and T. M. El-Agez, Optik 123, 417 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, and S. De Nicola, Appl. Opt. 42, 3882 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Lim, and K. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 49, 910 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Martinez-Anton and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Commun. 132, 321 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Reichl, R. Krage, C. Krummel, and G. Gauglitz, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 583 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).
  12. H. Bubert and H. Jenett, Surface and Thin Film Analysis (Wiley-VCH, 2002).
  13. J. Pawliszyn, Solid Phase Microextraction (Wiley-VCH, 1997).
  14. H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Chen, “Chemical detection and sensing using optical interferometry,” M.Sc. thesis (Queen’s University, 2013).

2012 (3)

K. Reddy and X. D. Fan, Opt. Express 20, 966 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Taya and T. M. El-Agez, Optik 123, 417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. I. Lim, and K. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 49, 910 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

J. C. Martinez-Anton and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Commun. 132, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. A.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Bernabeu, E.

J. C. Martinez-Anton and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Commun. 132, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bescherer, K.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. S.

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Brzezinski, A.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bubert, H.

H. Bubert and H. Jenett, Surface and Thin Film Analysis (Wiley-VCH, 2002).

Chen, W.

W. Chen, “Chemical detection and sensing using optical interferometry,” M.Sc. thesis (Queen’s University, 2013).

Cheung, A. H.

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coppola, G.

Crudden, C. M.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Nicola, S.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, and S. De Nicola, Appl. Opt. 42, 3882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, M.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, M. A.

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

El-Agez, T. M.

S. A. Taya and T. M. El-Agez, Optik 123, 417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

Ferraro, P.

G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, and S. De Nicola, Appl. Opt. 42, 3882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

Gagliardi, G.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

Gribble, A.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Howley, R.

Iodice, M.

Janz, S.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jenett, H.

H. Bubert and H. Jenett, Surface and Thin Film Analysis (Wiley-VCH, 2002).

Kim, K. H.

Kim, S. H.

Kirwan, P.

Krage, R.

Krummel, C.

Leblanc-Hotte, A.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Lee, S. H.

Lim, J. I.

Loock, H.-P.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Ma, R.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B. D.

Mackey, G.

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Martinez-Anton, J. C.

J. C. Martinez-Anton and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Commun. 132, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masterson, H.

McLoughlin, P.

Munzke, D.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O’Dwyer, K.

Ongo, G.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pawliszyn, J.

J. Pawliszyn, Solid Phase Microextraction (Wiley-VCH, 1997).

Peter, Y.-A.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Pierattini, G.

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Plett, K.

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, A.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Reddy, K.

Reichl, D.

Saunders, J.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

St-Gelais, R.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Taya, S. A.

S. A. Taya and T. M. El-Agez, Optik 123, 417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waechter, H.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

Analyst (1)

J. Barnes, M. Dreher, K. Plett, R. S. Brown, C. M. Crudden, and H.-P. Loock, Analyst 133, 1541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. C. Martinez-Anton and E. Bernabeu, Opt. Commun. 132, 321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, P. De Natale, S. Grilli, and G. Pierattini, Opt. Commun. 202, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optik (1)

S. A. Taya and T. M. El-Agez, Optik 123, 417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H.-P. Loock, J. A. Barnes, K. Bescherer, A. Brzezinski, G. Gagliardi, A. Gribble, S. Janz, R. Ma, D. Munzke, G. Ongo, J. Saunders, H. Waechter, and D. X. Xu, Proc. SPIE 8332, 833204 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. A. Barnes, R. S. Brown, A. H. Cheung, M. A. Dreher, G. Mackey, and H.-P. Loock, Sens. Actuators B 148, 221 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

W. Chen, “Chemical detection and sensing using optical interferometry,” M.Sc. thesis (Queen’s University, 2013).

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

H. Bubert and H. Jenett, Surface and Thin Film Analysis (Wiley-VCH, 2002).

J. Pawliszyn, Solid Phase Microextraction (Wiley-VCH, 1997).

R. St-Gelais, G. Mackey, J. Saunders, J. Zhou, A. Leblanc-Hotte, A. Poulin, J. A. Barnes, H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, and Y.-A. Peter, in 2011 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN) (IEEE, 2011), pp. 85–86.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of refractometer setup and sensing platform.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) TIR shows the angular relation of RI, (b) thin film interference allows for determination of the film thickness, (c) the refractometer image of a thick DMSO (75%) liquid layer, (d) an image for a thin polydiphenyl substituted (8.5%) PDMS film, and (e) calculated image from Eqs. (1) and (2) for the film in (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of Fig. 2(d) and (b) the unwrapped phase obtained by inverse FFT of the window in (a) and polynomial fit.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change of film thickness (left) and RI (right) upon exposure to acetone by the polydiphenyl-doped PDMS polymer.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ir=Io+I1cos(ϕ),
ϕ=2πλ02n2dcosθt=4πdλ0n22n12sin2θi.
Ir=I0+12I1ejϕ+12I1ejϕ.
FT{Ir}=I0δ(0)+12I1FT{ejϕ}+12I1FT{ejϕ}.
n12sin2θi=(λ04πd)2ϕ2+2(λ04πd)2ϕϕ0(λ04πd)2ϕ02+n22.
d=λ0/4πaandn2=cb2/4a.

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