Abstract

A scheme to improve the bandwidth of slow light using cascaded vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the scheme, a proper adjustment on the gain peaks of two cascaded VCSELs enables the generation of the desired composite gain spectrum, which has flat-top gain and delay profiles with enhanced peak values. By employing the improved gain and delay profiles in a slow light system, a large delay can be achieved within a wider bandwidth. In the experiment, by using two cascaded VCSELs, a tunable slow light up to 135 ps for a 5Gbits/s pseudorandom binary sequence is demonstrated with relatively low signal distortion.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, I. Kim, and S. L. Chuang, Proc. IEEE 91, 1854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, E. S. Björlin, and J. E. Bowers, Electron. Lett. 37, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Björlin, E. S.

J. Piprek, E. S. Björlin, and J. E. Bowers, Electron. Lett. 37, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

J. Piprek, E. S. Björlin, and J. E. Bowers, Electron. Lett. 37, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Z. Shi, R. Pant, Z. Zhu, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 32, 1986 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, I. Kim, and S. L. Chuang, Proc. IEEE 91, 1854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J. Y.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. S.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, I. Kim, and S. L. Chuang, Proc. IEEE 91, 1854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I.

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

Z. Shi, R. Pant, Z. Zhu, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 32, 1986 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, Fundamentals of Laser Diode Amplifiers (Wiley, 1996).

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

Kim, I.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, I. Kim, and S. L. Chuang, Proc. IEEE 91, 1854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P. C.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, I. Kim, and S. L. Chuang, Proc. IEEE 91, 1854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurand, N.

Lee, R. K.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M. A.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pant, R.

Peng, P. C.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, E. S. Björlin, and J. E. Bowers, Electron. Lett. 37, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Slusher, R. E.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stenner, M. D.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L. S.

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. P.

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Shi, R. Pant, Z. Zhu, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 32, 1986 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Piprek, E. S. Björlin, and J. E. Bowers, Electron. Lett. 37, 298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, and I. Fazal, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

C. S. Chou, R. K. Lee, P. C. Peng, H. C. Kuo, G. Lin, H. P. Yang, and J. Y. Chi, J. Opt. A 10, 044016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, Nature 409, 490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, I. Kim, and S. L. Chuang, Proc. IEEE 91, 1854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, Fundamentals of Laser Diode Amplifiers (Wiley, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theoretical diagram of the slow light process in cascaded VCSELs. FFT, fast Fourier transform; IFFT, inverse fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra of (a) gain and (b) delay for a single VCSEL (solid curves) and two cascaded VCSELs (dashed curves).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Time-domain reference trace; group delay of 5Gbits/s signal in (b) a single VCSEL and (c) cascaded VCSELs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup. TLS, tunable laser sources; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; VOA, variable optical attenuator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; O/E, optical/electrical.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Gain spectrum of (a) VCSEL1 biased at the threshold Ith1=2.1mA and (b) VCSEL2 biased at the threshold Ith2=2.5mA; the insets are the light-current characteristics of the two VCSELs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Gain and delay spectra of a single VCSEL and cascaded VCSELs with currents biased at 0.8Ith1 and 0.6Ith2 separately.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured delays of (a) 2.5Gbits/s, (b) 5Gbits/s, (c) 7.5Gbits/s, and (d) 10Gbits/s PRBS signals in a single VCSEL and cascaded VCSELs with bias currents 0.8Ith1 and 0.6Ith2, and fixed signal power of 24dBm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Time delay of a 5Gbits/s PRBS in single VCSEL and cascaded VCSEL configurations as a function of the bias current of VCSEL1.

Equations (3)

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Eref(λ)=Ein(λ)G(λ)exp(iψ(λ)),
gN(λ)exp(iψN(λ))=Rt+RbGsexp(2iθN)1RbRtGsexp(2iθN),
τ(λ)=dψ(λ)dω=d(ψ1(λ)+ψN(λ))dω=τ1(λ)+⋯;τN(λ).

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