Abstract

We present measurement results for a laser frequency reference, implemented with an all-optical fiber Michelson interferometer, down to frequencies as low as 1 mHz. Optical fiber is attractive for space-based operations as it is physically robust, small and lightweight. The small free spectral range of fiber interferometers also provides the possibility to prestabilize two lasers on two distant spacecraft and ensures that the beatnote remains within the detector bandwidth. We demonstrate that these fiber interferometers are viable candidates for future laser-based gravity recovery and climate experiment missions requiring a stability of 30Hz/Hz over a 10 mHz–1 Hz bandwidth.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  4. W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).
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2012

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Duan, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bartolo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 48, 720 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Kawamura, DECIGO Collaboration, Class. Quantum Gray. 28, 094011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

D. A. Shaddock, Class. Quantum Gray. 25, 114012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Bartolo, R. E.

R. E. Bartolo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 48, 720 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blin, S.

Dandridge, A.

R. E. Bartolo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 48, 720 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

de Cino, J.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

de Vine, G.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Duan, L.

L. Duan, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Folkner, W.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Folkner, W. M.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Heinzel, G.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Hsu, M. T. L.

Hyang, K. K.

Jiang, H.

Kawamura, S.

S. Kawamura, DECIGO Collaboration, Class. Quantum Gray. 28, 094011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kéfélian, F.

Kino, G. S.

Klipstein, W.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Klipstein, W. M.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, J.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Lemonde, P.

Littler, I. C. M.

McKenzie, K.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Pace, C.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Pierce, R.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Santarelli, G.

Shaddock, D.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Shaddock, D. A.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. T. L. Hsu, I. C. M. Littler, D. A. Shaddock, J. Herrmann, R. B. Warrington, and M. B. Gray, Opt. Lett. 35, 4202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Shaddock, Class. Quantum Gray. 25, 114012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, B. S.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spero, R.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Stephens, M.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Thompson, R.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Tveten, A. B.

R. E. Bartolo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 48, 720 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, R. B.

Wuchenich, D.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Yu, N.

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

Class. Quantum Gray.

D. A. Shaddock, Class. Quantum Gray. 25, 114012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawamura, DECIGO Collaboration, Class. Quantum Gray. 28, 094011 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

R. E. Bartolo, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 48, 720 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Geodes.

B. S. Sheard, G. Heinzel, K. Danzmann, D. A. Shaddock, W. M. Klipstein, and W. M. Folkner, J. Geodes. 86, 1083 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. Duan, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Folkner, G. de Vine, W. Klipstein, K. McKenzie, D. Shaddock, R. Spero, R. Thompson, D. Wuchenich, N. Yu, M. Stephens, J. Leitch, M. Davis, J. de Cino, C. Pace, and R. Pierce, in Laser Frequency Stabilization for GRACE-II (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2010).

KVH Industries, Inc. http://www.kvh.com .

A. Freise and K. Strain, “Interferometric techniques for gravitational-wave detection,” Living Reviews in Relativity (2010). http://relativity.livingreviews.org/open?pubNo=lrr-2010-1&page=articlesu31.html .

http://www.orbitslightwave.com .

www.specialtyphotonics.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of OFMI used to stabilize the laser frequency. EOM, electro-optic modulator; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; FPGA, field programmable gate array; LO, local oscillator; LPF, low-pass filter; G, integrator gain; NCO, numerically controlled oscillator; FC, fiber coupler; FM, Faraday mirror; and PD, low noise photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photodetector signal (i) from the interferometer (red trace) was optimized such that the fringe minima was close to the dark noise (iii). The blue trace (ii) shows the error signal where the 50 kHz pk–pk bandwidth is equivalent to an error signal from a Fabry–Pérot étalon with a FSR of 1 GHz and a finesse of 20,000.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Time series data for frequency correction (kHz) required to stabilize the laser to one interferometer [(i), solid red curve] and the frequency correction required for the other interferometer [(ii), dotted blue curve]. The green curve (iii) is the difference between the two correction signals and is magnified on a separate scale in (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency noise spectrum of the OFMI. (i) Frequency correction signal required to lock the laser to one of the interferometers (red). (ii) Subtraction of the two frequency correction signals (green). (iii) Frequency correction signal required to lock the laser to adjacent fringes in the same interferometer. The solid black curve is the frequency stability requirement for the GRACE FO laser rangefinding instrument and the dashed extension represents future mission objectives [3]. The dashed magenta curve is an estimate of the thermal effects on the optical path length of the fiber.

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