Abstract

A multipass cell (MPC) design for laser absorption spectroscopy is presented. The development of this new type of optical cell was driven by stringent criteria for compactness, robustness, low volume, and ease of use in optical systems. A single piece of reflective toroidal surface forms a near-concentric cavity with a volume of merely 40cm3. Contrary to traditional MPCs, this design allows for flexible path-length adjustments by simply changing the aiming angle of the laser beam at the entrance window. Two effective optical path lengths of 2.2 and 4.1 m were chosen to demonstrate the cell’s suitability for high-precision isotope ratio measurements of CO2 at 1% and ambient mixing ratio levels.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. L. Kasyutich, Appl. Phys. B 96, 141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Tuzson, M. J. Zeeman, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1964

1942

Bernacki, B.

B. Bernacki, “Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination,” U.S. patent 7,876,443(25January2011).

Bonetti, Y.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coxeter, H. S. M.

H. S. M. Coxeter, Introduction to Geometry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1969).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emmenegger, L.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tuzson, M. J. Zeeman, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hao, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kasyutich, V. L.

V. L. Kasyutich, Appl. Phys. B 96, 141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Looser, H.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manninen, A.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mccann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Opt. 34, 3336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, S.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Tuzson, B.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Tuzson, M. J. Zeeman, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Wood, E.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.-R.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Tuzson, M. J. Zeeman, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, and M. S. Zahniser, Appl. Opt. 34, 3336 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zeeman, M. J.

B. Tuzson, M. J. Zeeman, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q.-S.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

V. L. Kasyutich, Appl. Phys. B 96, 141 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, Appl. Phys. B 109, 461 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

B. Tuzson, M. J. Zeeman, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, and E. Wood, Opt. Eng. 49, 111124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

L.-Y. Hao, S. Qiang, G.-R. Wu, L. Qi, D. Feng, and Q.-S. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2079 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. S. M. Coxeter, Introduction to Geometry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1969).

B. Bernacki, “Multipass optical device and process for gas and analyte determination,” U.S. patent 7,876,443(25January2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ray-tracing simulation of the toroidal cell (left) and a photograph of the realized multipass absorption cell (right). The beam pattern is visualized by using a visible (650 nm) trace laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Beam shape and intensity distribution analysis of the light within the cell for (a) spherical and (b) toroidal cavity shapes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption spectrum of 0.5% CO2 in the optical cavity without (gray) and with (black) the fringe removal mask. The inset shows typical noise level of the absorption measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Layout of the optical setup (40×40cm) for CO2 isotopologue measurements. (1) Toroidal MPC, (2) QCL, (3) IR detector, (4) reflective objective, (5) OAPs, (6) spherical mirror, and (7) drop-in Ge etalon.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Allan variance plot of the recorded time series for the oxygen-isotope ratio (O18/O16) of 1% CO2 in synthetic air.

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