Abstract

This work presents a scheme for in situ monitoring of thin-film growth. A fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry–Perot interferometric technique has been established for the first time to monitor in situ growth of thin films. This was applied for determining thickness of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films during growth. The fabrication process of CdS film was carried out in 30 mM cadmium acetate and thioacetamide solution at 60°C temperature. The estimated thickness determined during the growth was verified by scanning electron microscopy. This study shows that in situ measurement of the thickness of thin films is feasible by this new technique, and a close match of the estimated thickness was achieved.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. A. Johnson and T. F. Morse, “Fiber optic reflectance apparatus for in situ characterization of thin films,” U.S. patent6,278,809 B1 (August21, 2001).
  2. Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Seshan, ed., Handbook of Thin-Film Deposition Processes and Techniques: Principles, Methods, Equipment and Applications (William Andrew, 2002).
  4. S. Sahu, S. K. Majee, and A. J. Pal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Taga, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 15, 231 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. P. Singh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 95 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).
  8. E. Reginald, K. Sunil, and A. Rahman, “Optical sensor for measuring thin film disposition in real time,” U.S. patent7,630,590 B2 (December8, 2009).
  9. M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Buzea and K. Robbie, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Jiang, Q. Li, J. Wang, Z. Jin, Q. Sui, Y. Ma, J. Shi, F. Zhang, L. Jia, W. Yao, and W. Dong, Opt. Express 21, 3083 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. El-Sherif, L. Bansal, and J. Yuan, Sensors 7, 3100 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Habib, Corros. Science 43, 449 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Sahu, S. K. Majee, and A. J. Pal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Sherif, L. Bansal, and J. Yuan, Sensors 7, 3100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Buzea and K. Robbie, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Taga, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 15, 231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Habib, Corros. Science 43, 449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. P. Singh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).

M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bansal, L.

M. El-Sherif, L. Bansal, and J. Yuan, Sensors 7, 3100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barlett, D.

C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).

Buzea, C.

C. Buzea and K. Robbie, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chason, E.

C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).

Cullinan, M. A.

M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Culpeppera, M. L.

M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DiBiasio, C. M.

M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W.

El-Sherif, M.

M. El-Sherif, L. Bansal, and J. Yuan, Sensors 7, 3100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Floro, J.

C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).

Gillham, R. W.

M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Habib, K.

K. Habib, Corros. Science 43, 449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hui, J.

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jia, L.

Jiang, M.

Jin, Z.

Johnson, E. A.

E. A. Johnson and T. F. Morse, “Fiber optic reflectance apparatus for in situ characterization of thin films,” U.S. patent6,278,809 B1 (August21, 2001).

Li, Q.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Majee, S. K.

S. Sahu, S. K. Majee, and A. J. Pal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morse, T. F.

E. A. Johnson and T. F. Morse, “Fiber optic reflectance apparatus for in situ characterization of thin films,” U.S. patent6,278,809 B1 (August21, 2001).

Odziemkowski, M. S.

M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pal, A. J.

S. Sahu, S. K. Majee, and A. J. Pal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panasa, R. M.

M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, D.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, A.

E. Reginald, K. Sunil, and A. Rahman, “Optical sensor for measuring thin film disposition in real time,” U.S. patent7,630,590 B2 (December8, 2009).

Reardon, E. J.

M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reginald, E.

E. Reginald, K. Sunil, and A. Rahman, “Optical sensor for measuring thin film disposition in real time,” U.S. patent7,630,590 B2 (December8, 2009).

Robbie, K.

C. Buzea and K. Robbie, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, S.

S. Sahu, S. K. Majee, and A. J. Pal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuhmacher, T. T.

M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Singh, B. P.

B. P. Singh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sui, Q.

Sun, C.

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sunil, K.

E. Reginald, K. Sunil, and A. Rahman, “Optical sensor for measuring thin film disposition in real time,” U.S. patent7,630,590 B2 (December8, 2009).

Taga, Y.

Y. Taga, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 15, 231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, C.

C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, W.

Yuan, J.

M. El-Sherif, L. Bansal, and J. Yuan, Sensors 7, 3100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, L.

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Sahu, S. K. Majee, and A. J. Pal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

B. P. Singh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corros. Sci. (1)

M. S. Odziemkowski, T. T. Schuhmacher, R. W. Gillham, and E. J. Reardon, Corros. Sci. 40, 371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corros. Science (1)

K. Habib, Corros. Science 43, 449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Phys. (1)

C. Taylor, D. Barlett, E. Chason, and J. Floro, Ind. Phys. 4, 25 (1998).

Mater. Sci. Eng., C (1)

Y. Taga, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 15, 231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Buzea and K. Robbie, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 385 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

M. A. Cullinan, R. M. Panasa, C. M. DiBiasio, and M. L. Culpeppera, Sens. Actuators A 187, 162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (2)

N. Liu, J. Hui, C. Sun, J. Dong, L. Zhang, and H. Xiao, Sensors 6, 835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Sherif, L. Bansal, and J. Yuan, Sensors 7, 3100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Z. Yuan, X. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Cai, B. Zhang, D. Qiu, and H. Wu, Thin Solid Films 519, 3254 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Seshan, ed., Handbook of Thin-Film Deposition Processes and Techniques: Principles, Methods, Equipment and Applications (William Andrew, 2002).

E. A. Johnson and T. F. Morse, “Fiber optic reflectance apparatus for in situ characterization of thin films,” U.S. patent6,278,809 B1 (August21, 2001).

E. Reginald, K. Sunil, and A. Rahman, “Optical sensor for measuring thin film disposition in real time,” U.S. patent7,630,590 B2 (December8, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical setup of CdS film growth (sensing configuration) and (b) schematic representation of multiple reflections in CdS film (Fabry–Perot effect).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Comparison between the FFT analysis of first surface (film/solution interface) reflection of CdS film (experimental) and calculated Fabry–Perot reflection. (b) Sample of the recorded fringes after noise reduction and DC elimination.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Comparison of the thickness of CdS film with respect to fabrication time estimated by the current method and (b) the actual CdS film thickness determined by SEM.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ETotal=r0E0+(1+r0)rAE0ei2k0nAd,
RFP(ω)=1TFP(ω)=1(1R(ω))21+R(ω)22R(ω)cos(2ϕ(ω)).
2ϕ(ω)=22πλnAdcosθ2,

Metrics