Abstract

Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) such that a helical phase front twists along the direction of propagation. OAM beams have been demonstrated in a wide variety of applications and have been found to offer a new orthogonal degree of freedom for multiplexing independent data streams for high-capacity point-to-point optical communications. However, to enable their efficient use in reconfigurable networks, approaches must be developed to manipulate OAM beams. We demonstrate OAM-based reconfigurable optical switching functions among multiple OAM beams. Selective data switching among three 100Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying OAM channels was achieved with a 2.1 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty. The scheme of selective OAM-beam manipulation can be potentially cascaded to realize an arbitrary n×n switching function.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo, Opt. Express 20, 9396 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Ricci, W. Löffler, and M. P. van Exter, Opt. Express 20, 22961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arabaci, M.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, K. M.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C. A.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

Cai, X. L.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, I. B.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dolinar, S.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Erkmen, B. I.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

Geisler, D. J.

Gnauck, A. H.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lingle, R.

Liu, X.

L. S. Yan, X. Liu, and W. Shieh, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, W.

McCurdy, A.

O’Brien, J. L.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Peckham, D. W.

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, F.

Ryf, R.

Scott, R. P.

Shamee, B.

Shieh, W.

L. S. Yan, X. Liu, and W. Shieh, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sierra, A.

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Strain, M. J.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Su, T.

Thompson, M. G.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

Wang, J.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. W.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Yan, L. S.

L. S. Yan, X. Liu, and W. Shieh, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A. M.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, S. T.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Opt. Lett. 37, 4753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. B.

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

L. S. Yan, X. Liu, and W. Shieh, IEEE Photon. J. 3, 325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yue, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Ren, H. Huang, K. M. Birnbaum, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. J. 4, 535 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, Nat. Photonics 6, 488 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, Nat. Photonics 1, 57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, Science 340, 1545 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Cai, J. W. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. B. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. T. Yu, Science 338, 363 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of n×n OAM switch.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Concept of OAM-based reconfigurable optical networking functions: (a) charge shift, (b) charge exchange, and (c) charge selective manipulation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Concept and principle of selective manipulation among OAM beams.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Conceptual diagram showing that two information-carrying OAM beams are selectively switched (OAM5OAM+8) without affecting the other OAM beam (OAM+2).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup for 100Gbit/s QPSK selective switching among OAM mode channels. QPSK: quadrature phase-shift keying: CW is continuous wave; PC is polarization controller; EDFA is erbium-doped fiber amplifier; BPF is band-pass filter; OC is optical coupler; SMF is single-mode fiber; Col.: collimator; HWP is half-wave plate; SLM: is spatial light modulator; BS is beam splitter; Att: is attenuator; OSA is optical spectrum analyzer; DLI is delay-line interferometer; Rx is receiver; LO is local oscillator; ADC, is analog-to-digital converter; and DSP is digital signal processing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Observed intensity profiles of OAM beams (OAM5, OAM+2, and OAM+8) at (a1) input, (a2) after down-conversion, (a3) after selective switching, and (a4) after down-conversion; (b) three computer-generated spiral phase masks with charges of 2, 1 (0 within the center spot) and 2 loaded into SLM4, SLM5, and SLM6; (c) measured interferograms showing that OAM5 and OAM+8 beams become OAM+7 (c1) and OAM6 (c2) after down-conversion, and OAM6 (c3), OAM+7 (c4) after selective switching.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Observed waveforms of demodulated inphase (Ch. I) and quadrature (Ch. Q) components of 100Gbit/s DQPSK signals for selective data switch between OAM5 and OAM+8 beams.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured BER curves for selective data switches: (a) OAM5 and OAM+2, (b) OAM5 and OAM+8, and (c) OAM+2 and OAM+8 beams.

Metrics