Abstract

An ultrathin amorphous silicon solar cell with conformal zig–zag nanoconfiguration is studied from both light-trapping and light-conversion perspectives. The design improves the front antireflection property, optimizes the rear metallic reflector, and elongates the optical path inside the photoactive layer. Compared to conventional nanoconfigurations, this system shows significant absorption enhancement in the whole amorphous silicon band and exhibits extremely low sensitivity to light polarization. The nano-optimization indicates that the short-circuit current density (light-conversion efficiency) of the 200-nm-thick solar cell can be 16.88mA/cm2 (13.38%), showing an enhancement factor of 32.90% (33.53%) from the planar system.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Opt. Lett. 35, 276 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Wellenzohn and R. Hainberger, Opt. Express 20, A20 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Bai, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli, J. Zhang, L. Cai, Y. Huang, and G. Song, Opt. Lett. 34, 3725 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Meng, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, R. Peretti, A. Fave, and C. Seassal, Opt. Express 20, A560 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Pillai and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1481 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. L. Temple and D. M. Bagnall, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 600 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. ASTM, “Reference solar spectral irradiance: AM 1.5 Spectra,” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ .
  17. Comsol Multiphysics, http://www.comsol.com/ .
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    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Zhan, X. Li, and Y. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4000208 (2013).
  21. X. Li and Y. Zhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 0211101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

T. L. Temple and D. M. Bagnall, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 600 (2013).

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhan, X. Li, and Y. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4000208 (2013).

X. Li and Y. Zhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 0211101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

M. Wellenzohn and R. Hainberger, Opt. Express 20, A20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, R. Peretti, A. Fave, and C. Seassal, Opt. Express 20, A560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 12, 2894 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 23, 1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbø, and E. S. Marstein, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, Opt. Lett. 35, 276 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Bai, Q. Gan, F. Bartoli, J. Zhang, L. Cai, Y. Huang, and G. Song, Opt. Lett. 34, 3725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

2000

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 12, 2894 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 12, 2894 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 23, 1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

T. L. Temple and D. M. Bagnall, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 600 (2013).

Bai, W.

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Ballif, C.

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F.

Bugnon, G.

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L.

Callahan, D. M.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 23, 1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deceglie, M. G.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 12, 2894 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

Ferry, V. E.

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 12, 2894 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Giannini, V.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gjessing, J.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbø, and E. S. Marstein, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gjessing, E. S. Marstein, and A. S. Sudbø, 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2011), pp. 2759–2763.

Gomard, G.

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 23, 1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hainberger, R.

Haug, R.-J.

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Hylton, N.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Lee, K.-H.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Li, X.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhan, X. Li, and Y. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4000208 (2013).

X. Li and Y. Zhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 0211101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Zhan, X. Li, and Y. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4000208 (2013).

Liu, V.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luxembourg, S. L.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Opt. Express 19, A888 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marstein, E. S.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbø, and E. S. Marstein, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gjessing, E. S. Marstein, and A. S. Sudbø, 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2011), pp. 2759–2763.

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Meng, X.

Metselaar, J. W.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 23, 1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College, 2003).

Nicolay, S.

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Peretti, R.

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Santbergen, R.

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Sivec, L.

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smets, A. H. M.

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

Song, Y. M.

Sudbø, A. S.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbø, and E. S. Marstein, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gjessing, E. S. Marstein, and A. S. Sudbø, 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2011), pp. 2759–2763.

Tan, H.

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Temple, T. L.

T. L. Temple and D. M. Bagnall, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 600 (2013).

Topic, M.

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

van Lare, M. C.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wellenzohn, M.

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Yan, B.

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Y.

X. Li and Y. Zhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 0211101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhan, X. Li, and Y. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4000208 (2013).

Zhang, J.

Adv. Mater.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. 23, 1272 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Li and Y. Zhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 0211101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, M. Zeman, S. L. Luxembourg, and M. Topic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, L. Sivec, B. Yan, R. Santbergen, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 153902 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Zhan, X. Li, and Y. Li, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 4000208 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Gjessing, A. S. Sudbø, and E. S. Marstein, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Nano Lett. 11, 4239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 12, 1616 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 12, 2894 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl.

X. Li, N. Hylton, V. Giannini, K.-H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, Prog Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

T. L. Temple and D. M. Bagnall, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 600 (2013).

Prog. Photovoltaics

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, Prog. Photovoltaics 12, 113 (2004).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

K. Söderström, G. Bugnon, R.-J. Haug, S. Nicolay, and C. Ballif, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 101, 193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 1481 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Gjessing, E. S. Marstein, and A. S. Sudbø, 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (2011), pp. 2759–2763.

ASTM, “Reference solar spectral irradiance: AM 1.5 Spectra,” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ .

Comsol Multiphysics, http://www.comsol.com/ .

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of a a-Si:H TFSC with a conformal zig–zag configuration, (b) a zig–zag unit cell, and (c) a rose unit cell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Absorption spectra Pabs of a-Si:H layer and (b) reflection spectra of the entire device, where Λ=400nm and H=Λ/6.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electrical response of the a-Si:H TFSCs with the conformal zig–zag structure, with (a) Jsc as a function of period, (b) EQE spectra, and (c) photocurrent and power densities as functions of forward electrical bias V.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical absorption distributions inside a-Si:H TFSCs with (a1)–(a3) planar and (b1)–(b3) conformal zig–zag configurations under various wavelengths. The carrier generation patterns are very similar to these figures after a typical treatment by considering that one photon generates one electron–hole pair [19,24].

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