Abstract

The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 4, 260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Mahalati, R. Y. Gu, and J. M. Kahn, Opt. Express 21, 1656 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 38, 2776 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, and W. Choi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

2012 (4)

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andilla, J.

Belazaras, K.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, S.

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo and S. Bianchi, Opt. Express 19, 247 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bragheri, F.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Candeloro, P.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, I. Y.

Choi, W.

I. Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, and W. Choi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cizmar, T.

Cojoc, G.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Das, G.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, F.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Di Fabrizio, E.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Di Leonardo, R.

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo and S. Bianchi, Opt. Express 19, 247 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, S.

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 4, 260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 38, 2776 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fee, M. S.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, L.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Fink, M.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University, 1992).

Gadonas, R.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, F.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, R. Y.

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

Kahn, J. M.

Kim, M.

I. Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, and W. Choi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

La Rocca, R.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y.

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liberale, C.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mahalati, R. N.

Malinauskas, M.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Badosa, E.

Minzioni, P.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Montes-Usategui, M.

Moser, C.

I. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 38, 2776 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 4, 260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A. P.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, I.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 4, 260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Perozziello, G.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Piskarskas, A.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pleguezuelos, E.

Popoff, S.

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University, 1992).

Psaltis, D.

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 4, 260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 38, 2776 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Purlys, V.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rajamanickam, V.

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Schnitzer, M.

Tank, D. W.

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University, 1992).

Tikuisis, K.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University, 1992).

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Yang, J.

Yang, T. D.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, C.

I. Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, and W. Choi, Opt. Lett. 38, 2253 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zukauskas, A.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, K. Belazaras, K. Tikuisis, V. Purlys, R. Gadonas, and A. Piskarskas, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 20501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, P. Candeloro, G. Das, F. Gentile, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

S. Bianchi and R. Di Leonardo, Lab Chip 12, 635 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, Nat. Commun. 1, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, Nat. Photonics 6, 283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, Neuron 31, 903 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, and W. Choi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Liberale, G. Cojoc, F. Bragheri, P. Minzioni, G. Perozziello, R. La Rocca, L. Ferrara, V. Rajamanickam, E. Di Fabrizio, and I. Cristiani, Sci. Rep. 3, 1258 (2013).

Other (1)

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the parabolic micro-reflector covering the core of a multimode fiber. (b) Ray optics description of the working principle of the micro-parabolic reflector. (c) Schematic view of experimental setup: L1–L4, planoconvex lenses (f=20, 250, 500, and 250 mm); L5 fiber collimator (f=11mm, NA=0.25); D, dichroic mirror; PMT, photomultiplier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Light refocusing at the output of a bare multimode fiber (a), and for the same fiber terminated with a parabolic reflector (b). (c) Radial profile of the focused spot in (a) (black circles) and (b) (red circles). The corresponding fits to an Airy pattern and Eq. (3) are reported, respectively, as black and red solid lines. The inset shows a representation in reciprocal space of the spatial frequency content of the fitting spots. (d) Superposition of single spot images during an holographic scan over a square grid. All scale bars are 1 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence images of 2 μm polystyrene beads obtained with a structured fiber (a) and a bare fiber (NA=0.27), (b). The corresponding intensity profiles are also shown in (c) and (d). All scale bars are 2 μm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

vm=nGmnun.
arg(Gmn)=arg(Gm0)+arctan[Imπ/2Im3π/2Im0Imπ],
|J1(k0r)πr+wk2J1(k2r)k1J1(k1r)rπ(k22k12)|2,
fn=mImnxm.
x=V·D1·UT·f,
xk+1=P[xk(IT·I·xkIT·f)ϵ],

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