Abstract

Differential phase measurement between radially polarized (RP) and azimuthally polarized (AP) beams is an important technique in microscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors as reported in our earlier works [Opt. Lett. 37, 2091 (2012); Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013)]. However, such a technique suffers complex beam splitting, detection, and data processing procedures for RP and AP beams which may lower the accuracy of phase measurement. In this Letter, a novel plasmonic petal-shaped vector beam is proposed instead of RP and AP beams, greatly simplifying the sensor system and enabling single measurement in differential interferometry. Moreover, an improved ultrahigh sensitivity on the order of 107 refractive index units (RIUs) is experimentally verified in the proposed system.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Boardman, ed. Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, 1982).
  2. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).
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  4. J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, Opt. Lett. 29, 2378 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. P. Du, “SPP/LSP coupled hybrid mode directed multi-functional surface-enhanced Raman system,” Ph.D. thesis (Nanyang Technological University, 2013).

2013 (1)

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 35, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, Appl. Opt. 46, 7544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burge, R. E.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, Appl. Opt. 46, 7544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, L. P.

L. P. Du, “SPP/LSP coupled hybrid mode directed multi-functional surface-enhanced Raman system,” Ph.D. thesis (Nanyang Technological University, 2013).

Gao, B. Z.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. H.

Johnston, K. S.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 35, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson, J. Mol. Recognit. 17, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Lam, W. W.

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Lin, C.

Lipson, S. G.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Low, D. K. Y.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Min, C. J.

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moh, K. J.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, Appl. Opt. 46, 7544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, S. G.

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 35, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Notcovich, A. G.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Wang, R.

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. L. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 37, 2091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. W.

Wu, S. Y.

Yang, Y.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 35, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. C.

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. L. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 37, 2091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, Appl. Opt. 46, 7544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. L.

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. L. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 37, 2091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. W.

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, C. L. Zhang, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Opt. Lett. 37, 2091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhuk, V.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zhang, R. Wang, C. J. Min, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Recognit. (1)

R. Karlsson, J. Mol. Recognit. 17, 151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (2)

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. P. Ho, W. W. Lam, and S. Y. Wu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3534 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, Sens. Actuators B 35, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. D. Boardman, ed. Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, 1982).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).

L. P. Du, “SPP/LSP coupled hybrid mode directed multi-functional surface-enhanced Raman system,” Ph.D. thesis (Nanyang Technological University, 2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for microscopic SPR biosensor based on differential phase measurement between radial and azimuthal polarization in a single sectionalized vector beam. Insets show the polarization vectors of (a) an AP beam and (b) a desired sectionalized vector beam with background of intensity distribution. White arrows indicate the polarization direction at different sections in the beam cross section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretically calculated (a) 2D and (c) 3D out-of plane SPP electric field intensity on the gold film excited by the sectionalized vector beam under tight focusing conditions. (b) Experimentally measured SPP electric field intensity distribution by SERS mapping technique. (d) Comparison of normalized measured and calculated profiles of intensity distribution across the white dashed lines in (a) and (b). Both experimental and calculated excitation wavelength is chosen to be 532 nm due to the limited experimental condition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity distribution of reflection captured by CCD camera at the back focal plane of the objective lens, with the fast axis of the half-wave plate angled (a) ±45° and (b) 0/90° with regard to the horizontal axis. The white arrows indicate the radial polarization directions. The dark arcs correspond to the SPP excitation regions. (c) is the sum of (a) and (b), with a complete dark ring corresponding to the SPR angle. (d) Processed image after digital filtering and a shape recognition algorithm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Differential phase measurement of ethanol solutions with concentration ranging from 0.015% to 0.195%.

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