Abstract

X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is a new molecular imaging modality. In this Letter, we first in vivo tomographically image the near-IR-emitting nanophosphor (Gd2O3:Eu3+) in nude mice (N=2). In practically, incorporating the compressive sensing technique, the XLCT reconstruction is performed only using single-view data. The experimental results indicate that the single-view reconstruction is feasible to image XLCT in vivo. The location error is less than 1.5 mm. Further, the imaging time can be greatly reduced compared with previous XLCT systems. Therefore, it is suited for imaging fast distribution of x-ray-excitable nanophosphors within a biological object.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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C. T. Badea, I. N. Stanton, S. M. Johnston, G. A. Johnson, and M. J. Therien, Proc. SPIE 8313, 83130T (2012).
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X. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31, 2120 (2012).
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C. M. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 3487 (2011).
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Chen, D.

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D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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W. Cong, H. Shen, and G. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 066014 (2011).
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T. Blumensath and M. E. Davies, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 56, 2370 (2008).
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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
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J. Duarte-Carvajalino and G. Sapiro, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18, 1395 (2009).
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M. Elad, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 5695 (2007).
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Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
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J. J. Duderstadt and L. J. Hamilton, Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Wiley, 1976).

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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
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Li, C.

Li, H.

Li, Y.

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D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
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Liu, X.

X. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31, 2120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Wang, F. Liu, and J. Bai, Opt. Express 18, 6300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

X. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31, 2120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lv, J. Tian, G. Wang, W.-X. Cong, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, Opt. Express 14, 8211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.-X.

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Y.-J.

McLennan, G.

Miller, E.

Ntziachristos, V.

Pang, T.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pratx, G.

C. M. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 3487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, X.

Rao, R. P.

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sapiro, G.

J. Duarte-Carvajalino and G. Sapiro, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18, 1395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, R.

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

W. Cong, H. Shen, and G. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 066014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.-O.

Sinn, P.

Stanton, I. N.

C. T. Badea, I. N. Stanton, S. M. Johnston, G. A. Johnson, and M. J. Therien, Proc. SPIE 8313, 83130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

C. M. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 3487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Therien, M. J.

C. T. Badea, I. N. Stanton, S. M. Johnston, G. A. Johnson, and M. J. Therien, Proc. SPIE 8313, 83130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lv, J. Tian, G. Wang, W.-X. Cong, J. Luo, W. Yang, and H. Li, Opt. Express 14, 8211 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wakin, M. B.

E. J. Candès and M. B. Wakin, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xing, L.

C. M. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 3487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, R. P. Rao, and L. Xing, Opt. Lett. 35, 3345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, M.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

Yazici, B.

Yi, H.

D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

X. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31, 2120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zhu, S.

D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

E. J. Candès and M. B. Wakin, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. Duarte-Carvajalino and G. Sapiro, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18, 1395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

X. Liu, B. Zhang, J. Luo, and J. Bai, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31, 2120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29, 1992 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (2)

T. Blumensath and M. E. Davies, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 56, 2370 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Elad, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 5695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Cong, H. Shen, and G. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 066014 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

H. Wang, R. Wang, X. Sun, R. Yan, and Y. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (3)

D. Chen, S. Zhu, H. Yi, X. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Liang, and J. Tian, Med. Phys. 40, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, Med. Phys. 22, 1779 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

C. M. Carpenter, G. Pratx, C. Sun, and L. Xing, Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 3487 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. T. Badea, I. N. Stanton, S. M. Johnston, G. A. Johnson, and M. J. Therien, Proc. SPIE 8313, 83130T (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. J. Duderstadt and L. J. Hamilton, Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Wiley, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for XLCT.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

X-ray and luminescence projection images in in vivo experiments (N=2). In the experiments, a transparent tube (inner diameter 2.0 mm) filled with the NIR-emitting nanophosphor (Gd2O3:Eu3+) was implanted into the body of mice.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tomographic images of the x-ray-excitable nanophosphor from mouse 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the cone beam XLCT imaging. (b) Reconstructed XCT image by FDK method. (c) Reconstructed XLCT image by OLS method with single view data [see Fig. 2(b)]. The green curve in (c) depicts the mouse boundary. (d) The fusion image of the XCT and XLCT.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In vivo XLCT reconstruction images (N=2). (a) and (h) 2D x-ray projection images. The blue dotted lines denote different locations corresponding to the reconstruction results shown in subsequent columns. (b), (e), (i), and (l) Reconstructed XCT tomographic images. (c), (f), (j), and (m) Reconstructed XLCT tomographic images. These images are obtained by OLS method, incorporating single view data [Figs. 2(b) and 2(d)]. (d), (g), (k), and (n) Fusion results of dual-modal XLCT and XCT. The reconstructed XLCT images in (c), (f), and (j), (m) are normalized by the maximum value, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spatial Coordinate Values of the Center of the Tube in the XCT Images and the Maximum Value of the XLCT Images Reconstructed by Single View Data (Unit: mm)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Imaging Time for the Different XLCT System

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S(r)=εX(r)ρ(r),
X(r)=X0exp[r0rμ(τ)dτ],
·[D(r)Φ(r)]+μa(r)Φ(r)=S(r)rΩ,
Φ(r)+2kD(r)[vΦ(r)]=0rΩ,
AΦ=FεXρ
aij=ΩD(r)ψi(r)ψj(r)dr+Ωμa(r)ψi(r)ψj(r)dr+12kΩψi(r)ψj(r)dr,
fij=ΩΦ(r)ψi(r)ψj(r)dr,
Φ=(A1FεX)ρ=Wρ.
MΦ=(MW)ρ=Apreρ,
M=(T+λI)1/2UT,
minρ0s.t.Φpre=Apreρ,

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