Abstract

We demonstrate a new approach to chosen-plaintext attack on a general encryption model based on scrambling preprocessing operation and double random phase encoding (DRPE). With this attack, an opponent can access both the scrambling key and two random phase keys. We hope that our work motivates further security analysis of the optical encryption scheme combining the scrambling techniques and DRPE.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013

2011

C. Li and K. Lo, Signal Process. 91, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

W. Chen, C. Quan, and C. Tay, Opt. Commun. 282, 3680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

A. Carnicer, M. Montes-Usategui, S. Arcos, and I. Juvells, Opt. Lett. 30, 1644 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Proc. SPIE 5986, 598603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2000

1999

1995

Alshebeili, S.

Arcos, S.

Bourbakis, N.

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carnicer, A.

Castro, A.

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 15, 10253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Proc. SPIE 5986, 598603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, C. Quan, and C. Tay, Opt. Commun. 282, 3680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

El-Samie, F.

Elshamy, A.

Faragalla, O.

Frauel, Y.

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 15, 10253 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Proc. SPIE 5986, 598603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gopinathan, U.

Hennelly, B.

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Juvells, I.

Li, C.

C. Li and K. Lo, Signal Process. 91, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, K.

C. Li and K. Lo, Signal Process. 91, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Mohamed, A.

Monaghan, D. S.

Montes-Usategui, M.

Mu, Y.

Naughton, T.

Naughton, T. J.

U. Gopinathan, D. S. Monaghan, T. J. Naughton, and J. T. Sheridan, Opt. Express 14, 3181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Proc. SPIE 5986, 598603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

Quan, C.

W. Chen, C. Quan, and C. Tay, Opt. Commun. 282, 3680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rashed, A.

Refregier, P.

Sheridan, J.

Sheridan, J. T.

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

Tang, H.

X. Peng, H. Tang, and J. Tian, Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2629 (2007).

Tao, R.

Tay, C.

W. Chen, C. Quan, and C. Tay, Opt. Commun. 282, 3680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

X. Peng, H. Tang, and J. Tian, Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2629 (2007).

Towghi, N.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Wang, Y.

Wei, H.

Xiao, D.

Y. Zhang and D. Xiao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xin, Y.

Yu, B.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang and D. Xiao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin.

X. Peng, H. Tang, and J. Tian, Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 2629 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

W. Chen, C. Quan, and C. Tay, Opt. Commun. 282, 3680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

Y. Zhang and D. Xiao, Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, Proc. SPIE 5986, 598603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process.

C. Li and K. Lo, Signal Process. 91, 949 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process. Image Commun.

S. Li, C. Li, G. Chen, N. Bourbakis, and K. Lo, Signal Process. Image Commun. 23, 212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Flowchart of DRPE.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Gray-scale Peppers image. (b) Cipher image corresponding to (a). (c) Retrieved result corresponding to (b) with CPA. (d) Color Lena image. (e) Cipher image corresponding to (d). (f) Retrieved result corresponding to (e) with CPA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Decryption of images encrypted with 16-level phase keys. (a) 16-level decryption key. (b) Four-level decryption key. (c) Two-level decryption key.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Decryption using partial windows of the original 100×100 key. (a) 50×50. (b) 40×40. (c) 30×30.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship between NMSE and the dimension of window size of key mask.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. NMSE, NSNR, and IF Versus the Dimensions of Decryption Keys

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C=F(P·X)·Y,
C=F(J(P)·X)·Y.
P=J1(|F1(C÷Y)|),
P0=δ(μ,ν),
J(P0)=δ(μ,ν).
C0=F(J(P0)·X)·Y=F(δ(μ,ν)·X)·Y=X(μ,ν)·Y.
J(Ps)=Ps.
X=F1(Cs÷Y)÷Ps.
{P0=P10P20Ps=P1sP2s.
{J(P0)=J(P10P20)=J(P10)J(P20)J(Ps)=J(P1sP2s)=J(P1s)J(P2s).
{C10C20=X(μ,ν)·YX=F1((C1sC2s)÷Y)÷(P1sP2s),
C=TP,
T=CP1,
{NMSE=ij[P(i,j)P˜(i,j)]2ij[P(i,j)]2NSNR=10log10(NMSE)IF=1NMSE,

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