Abstract

Dual-Vivaldi nanoantenna (DVA) arrays were designed, fabricated, and optically characterized in the infrared (IR) and visible regimes. The antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the scattered light at IR (1450–1640 nm) and visible (780 nm) spectral ranges. The radiation efficiency and the spectral response of the antennas were found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations. The results presented here demonstrate the extremely wideband nature of the DVAs and the strong impact of load at the antenna terminals on its scattering response. These properties, as well as their many degrees of freedom for design, render the DVAs excellent candidates for optical sensing applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 11, 114030 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, Nano Lett. 10, 1006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 11, 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

Boag, A.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Iluz and A. Boag, Opt. Lett. 36, 2773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Danckwerts, M.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 11, 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Derkacs, D.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

Dmitriev, A.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eitan, M.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friedler, I.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ghenuche, P.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Groves, J. T.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hacht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanein, Y.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, Nano Lett. 10, 1006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iluz, Z.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Iluz and A. Boag, Opt. Lett. 36, 2773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iversen, L.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, B. K.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.-C.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lohmüller, T.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, Nano Lett. 10, 1006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. Van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 11, 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), Vol. 1.

Palomba, S.

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 11, 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santschi, C.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, Nano Lett. 10, 1006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, J.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, Opt. Express 19, 25454 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schimdt, M.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, H.-L.

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. Van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, R. T.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yifat, Y.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, Nano Lett. 10, 1006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Yifat, Z. Iluz, M. Eitan, I. Friedler, Y. Hanein, A. Boag, and J. Scheuer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 111113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

S. Palomba, M. Danckwerts, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A 11, 114030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 8, 3155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, L. Huang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, Nano Lett. 10, 1006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, Nano Lett. 9, 2372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lohmüller, L. Iversen, M. Schimdt, C. Rhodes, H.-L. Tu, W.-C. Lin, and J. T. Groves, Nano Lett. 12, 1717 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photonics 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and N. Van Hulst, Nat. Photonics 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, Nat. Photonics 3, 287 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, B. K. Kelly, and T. Mallouk, Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hacht, and D. Pohl, Science 308, 1607 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), Vol. 1.

Computer Simulation Technology, “CST MWS version 2011,” http://www.CST.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of (a) shorted DVA and (b) open DVA columns.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top views of open DVA. (a) SEM image of open DVAs. (b) Design parameters for a single unit-cell antenna. (c) E-field distribution obtained using CST numerical software.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diagram of the experimental setup for characterizing to measure the antenna arrays. A similar setup was used for the 780 nm measurement.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Antenna scattering efficiency as a function of wavelength for the first-order Bragg diffraction lobe. Comparison between experimental results and numerical calculations for short and open DVAs in the 1460–1620 nm range (for 100μm×100μm arrays). Inset: same plot as the main figure at 780 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Antenna Scattering Efficiency per Lobe [in (%)], Calculated for Open DVA at 1500 nm

Equations (1)

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η=g·Pdet/Pin

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