Abstract

We describe a resolution-improved spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on classical intensity correlations as a counterpart of the recently proposed intensity-based time-domain OCT. Similarly to quantum OCT, the setup employs the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer at the output of the conventional SD-OCT. It is shown theoretically that a factor-of-2 improvement in axial resolution is obtained with this arrangement. Some unique and useful features of our proposed system are addressed.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041601(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kaltenbaek, J. Lavoie, D. N. Biggerstaff, and K. J. Resch, Nat. Phys. 4, 864 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lavoie, R. Kaltenbaek, and K. J. Resch, Opt. Express 17, 3818 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Banaszek, A. Radunsky, and I. Walmsley, Opt. Commun. 269, 152 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. J. Resch, P. Puvanathasan, J. S. Lundeen, M. W. Mitchell, and K. Bizheva, Opt. Express 15, 8797 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Lajunen, V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, and A. T. Friberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1049 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Zerom, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, and J. H. Shapiro, “Optical coherence tomography based on intensity correlations of quasi-thermal light,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md. (June 1–6, 2009), paper JWA48.
  14. A. Pe’er, Y. Bromberg, B. Dayan, Y. Silberberg, and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Express 15, 8760 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, and C. Yang, Biotechniques 39, S6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. A. Ponomarenko, H. Roychowdhury, and E. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 345, 10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge, 2007), Section 7.3.

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. Kaltenbaek, J. Lavoie, D. N. Biggerstaff, and K. J. Resch, Nat. Phys. 4, 864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041601(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, and C. Yang, Biotechniques 39, S6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ponomarenko, H. Roychowdhury, and E. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 345, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

K. Banaszek, A. Radunsky, and I. Walmsley, Opt. Commun. 269, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biggerstaff, D. N.

R. Kaltenbaek, J. Lavoie, D. N. Biggerstaff, and K. J. Resch, Nat. Phys. 4, 864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

Boyd, R. W.

P. Zerom, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, and J. H. Shapiro, “Optical coherence tomography based on intensity correlations of quasi-thermal light,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md. (June 1–6, 2009), paper JWA48.

Bromberg, Y.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

Dayan, B.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erkmen, B. I.

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041601(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friberg, A. T.

Friesem, A. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Kaltenbaek, R.

J. Lavoie, R. Kaltenbaek, and K. J. Resch, Opt. Express 17, 3818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kaltenbaek, J. Lavoie, D. N. Biggerstaff, and K. J. Resch, Nat. Phys. 4, 864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lajunen, H.

Lancis, J.

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lavoie, J.

J. Lavoie, R. Kaltenbaek, and K. J. Resch, Opt. Express 17, 3818 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kaltenbaek, J. Lavoie, D. N. Biggerstaff, and K. J. Resch, Nat. Phys. 4, 864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lundeen, J. S.

Mandel, L.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. W.

Nasr, M. B.

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z. Y.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pe’er, A.

Piredda, G.

P. Zerom, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, and J. H. Shapiro, “Optical coherence tomography based on intensity correlations of quasi-thermal light,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md. (June 1–6, 2009), paper JWA48.

Ponomarenko, S. A.

S. A. Ponomarenko, H. Roychowdhury, and E. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 345, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puvanathasan, P.

Radunsky, A.

K. Banaszek, A. Radunsky, and I. Walmsley, Opt. Commun. 269, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K. J.

Roychowdhury, H.

S. A. Ponomarenko, H. Roychowdhury, and E. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 345, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041601(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Zerom, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, and J. H. Shapiro, “Optical coherence tomography based on intensity correlations of quasi-thermal light,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md. (June 1–6, 2009), paper JWA48.

Silberberg, Y.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Company, V.

Walmsley, I.

K. Banaszek, A. Radunsky, and I. Walmsley, Opt. Commun. 269, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

S. A. Ponomarenko, H. Roychowdhury, and E. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 345, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge, 2007), Section 7.3.

Wu, J.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, and C. Yang, Biotechniques 39, S6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, and C. Yang, Biotechniques 39, S6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, and C. Yang, Biotechniques 39, S6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zerom, P.

P. Zerom, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, and J. H. Shapiro, “Optical coherence tomography based on intensity correlations of quasi-thermal light,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md. (June 1–6, 2009), paper JWA48.

Biotechniques (1)

Z. Yaqoob, J. Wu, and C. Yang, Biotechniques 39, S6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Kaltenbaek, J. Lavoie, D. N. Biggerstaff, and K. J. Resch, Nat. Phys. 4, 864 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek, A. Radunsky, and I. Walmsley, Opt. Commun. 269, 152 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

S. A. Ponomarenko, H. Roychowdhury, and E. Wolf, Phys. Lett. A 345, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

B. I. Erkmen and J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 74, 041601(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Abouraddy, M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Zerom, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, and J. H. Shapiro, “Optical coherence tomography based on intensity correlations of quasi-thermal light,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md. (June 1–6, 2009), paper JWA48.

E. Wolf, Introduction to the Theory of Coherence and Polarization of Light (Cambridge, 2007), Section 7.3.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Conventional SD-OCT setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SD-OCT setup based on classical intensity correlations, incorporating the spirit of Q-OCT.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(ω)=S(ω){|r|2+1+r*exp(iωτ)+rexp(iωτ)},
I^(x)=I(ω)exp(ixω)dω,
I^(x)=(|r|2+1)Γ(x)+r*Γ(x+τ)+rΓ(xτ),
Γ(x)=0S(ω)exp(ixω)dω.
U1(ω)=US(ω)+iUR(ω)=U0(ω)[rexp(iωt1)+iexp(iωt2)],
U2(ω)=iUS(ω)+UR(ω)=U0(ω)[irexp(iωt1)+exp(iωt2)].
C12(ω)=|U1(ω)|2|U2(ω)|2=|U1(ω)|2|U2(ω)|2+|U1*(ω)U2(ω)|2.
C12(ω)=2S2(ω){|r|4+1+(r*)2exp(i2ωτ)+r2exp(i2ωτ)},
C^12(x)=C12(ω)exp(ixω)dω,
C^12(x)=2{(|r|4+1)Γ(x)+(r*)2Γ(x+2τ)+r2Γ(x2τ)},
Γ(x)=Γ(x)Γ(x)=0S2(ω)exp(ixω)dω,

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