Abstract

A new type of organic visible-blind UV-PDs is demonstrated by utilizing phosphorescent material Ir(III)bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2] picolinate (FIrpic) as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyricacidmethylester (PCBM) as the electron accepter, respectively. The peak responsivity of the organic UV-PDs is as high as 140mA/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of about 48%, under 365 nm UV light with an intensity of 0.018mW/cm2. The distinct photoluminescence quenching of FIrpic is obtained by doping PCBM. The organic UV-PDs provide visible-blind performance with the strong photocurrent response in the UV-A region, the rise and fall times of less than one second, and linear response within the incident light-intensity range from 0.018 to 20mW/cm2.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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J. Wang, F. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and Y. Wang, J. Phys. D 46, 015104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Guo, Z. Xiao, and J. Huang, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 289 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

F. Zhang, Z. Zhuo, J. Zhang, X. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Xin, J. Wang, J. Wang, and W. Tang, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 97, 71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shao, L. Qin, and S. Sawyer, Appl. Surf. Sci. 261, 123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, Q. Dai, Z. F. Hu, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. S. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Luhman and R. J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, Science 321, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, Nano Lett. 8, 1649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C.-L. Lee, X. Yang, and N. C. Greenham, Phys. Rev. B 76, 245201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xing, K. Zhao, H. Lu, X. Wang, G. Liu, K. Jin, M. He, C. Wang, and G. Yang, Opt. Lett. 32, 2526 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, X. Xin, J. H. Zhao, F. Yan, B. Guan, J. Seely, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, Opt. Lett. 31, 1591 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. W. Lin, S. Y. Ku, H. C. Su, C. W. Huang, Y. T. Lin, K. T. Wong, and C. C. Wu, Adv. Mater. 17, 2489 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shao and Y. Yang, Adv. Mater. 17, 2841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. R. Forrest, Nature 428, 911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 425, 158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. Yang, R. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Frederick, H. Snell, and E. Haywood, Photochem. Photobiol. 50, 443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. L. Braun, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4157 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anwar, M.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, Science 321, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bi, D.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blakesley, J. C.

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, Nano Lett. 8, 1649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braun, C. L.

C. L. Braun, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4157 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Che, G.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choopun, S.

W. Yang, R. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coffin, R.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M. J.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, Science 321, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Denk, P.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, Nature 428, 911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 425, 158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J.

J. Frederick, H. Snell, and E. Haywood, Photochem. Photobiol. 50, 443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garon, S.

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goffri, S.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, Science 321, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, Nano Lett. 8, 1649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lee, X. Yang, and N. C. Greenham, Phys. Rev. B 76, 245201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B.

Guo, F.

F. Guo, Z. Xiao, and J. Huang, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 289 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haywood, E.

J. Frederick, H. Snell, and E. Haywood, Photochem. Photobiol. 50, 443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heidel, T. D.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, Science 321, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R.

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

W. A. Luhman and R. J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Hu, Z.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. F.

Huang, C. W.

H. W. Lin, S. Y. Ku, H. C. Su, C. W. Huang, Y. T. Lin, K. T. Wong, and C. C. Wu, Adv. Mater. 17, 2489 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

F. Guo, Z. Xiao, and J. Huang, Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 289 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K.

Jin, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Jin, J. P. Wang, B. Q. Sun, J. C. Blakesley, and N. C. Greenham, Nano Lett. 8, 1649 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Köhnen, A.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Z.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koppe, M.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ku, S. Y.

H. W. Lin, S. Y. Ku, H. C. Su, C. W. Huang, Y. T. Lin, K. T. Wong, and C. C. Wu, Adv. Mater. 17, 2489 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenkov, D.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, R.

R. Holmes, S. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. Kwong, J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-L.

C.-L. Lee, X. Yang, and N. C. Greenham, Phys. Rev. B 76, 245201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Z. Kong, W. Li, G. Che, B. Chu, D. Bi, L. Han, L. Chen, Z. Hu, and Z. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, B.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. W.

H. W. Lin, S. Y. Ku, H. C. Su, C. W. Huang, Y. T. Lin, K. T. Wong, and C. C. Wu, Adv. Mater. 17, 2489 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

H. W. Lin, S. Y. Ku, H. C. Su, C. W. Huang, Y. T. Lin, K. T. Wong, and C. C. Wu, Adv. Mater. 17, 2489 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

J. Wang, F. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, and Y. Wang, J. Phys. D 46, 015104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Lu, H.

Luhman, W. A.

W. A. Luhman and R. J. Holmes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mapel, J. K.

M. J. Currie, J. K. Mapel, T. D. Heidel, S. Goffri, and M. A. Baldo, Science 321, 226 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, A. Köhnen, and K. Meerholz, Adv. Mater. 23, 233 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mühlbacher, D.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narasimhan, K. L.

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nie, W.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

Q. Chen, J. Yang, A. Osinsky, S. Gangopadhyay, B. Lim, M. Anwar, M. Asif Khan, D. Kuksenkov, and H. Temkin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, E. D.

Y. Li, M. Wang, H. Huang, W. Nie, Q. Li, E. D. Peterson, R. Coffin, G. Fang, and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 84, 085206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

P. Peumans, S. Uchida, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 425, 158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

D. Shao, L. Qin, and S. Sawyer, Appl. Surf. Sci. 261, 123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ray, D.

D. Ray and K. L. Narasimhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, J. Mater. Res. 19, 1924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sawyer, S.

D. Shao, L. Qin, and S. Sawyer, Appl. Surf. Sci. 261, 123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mater. 18, 789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J.

Shao, D.

D. Shao, L. Qin, and S. Sawyer, Appl. Surf. Sci. 261, 123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

Y. Shao and Y. Yang, Adv. Mater. 17, 2841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

W. Yang, R. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

W. Yang, R. Vispute, S. Choopun, R. Sharma, T. Venkatesan, and H. Shen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2787 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, C.-L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, Science 325, 1665 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure schematic diagram of the organic UV-PDs: Glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/FIrpic:PCBM/Al.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PL spectrum of the neat FIrpic film. The insert shows the photographs of the neat FIrpic and FIrpic:PCBM blend solutions under 365 nm UV light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

J–V characteristic curves of the organic UV-PDs in the dark and under UV light. The insert shows the photocurrent as function of time, under square-wave UV light.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photocurrent density as function of incident light intensity. The insert shows calculated EQE as function of incident light intensity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absorption spectra of the neat FIrpic, neat PCBM, and the FIrpic:PCBM blend films, and spectral responsivity of the organic UV-PDs. The insert shows transmittance spectrum of ITO glass substrate.

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