Abstract

Visible light communications using a Gallium-nitride (GaN) laser diode is reported. Devices, which are cased in TO packages, show modulation bandwidths of up to 1.4 GHz. We demonstrate error-free data transmission, defined as transmission of 1×109 bits without any errors, at 2.5Gbit/s with a sensitivity of 11.5 dBm.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Nakamura, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36, 435 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Hanson and S. Radic, Appl. Opt. 47, 277 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. TopGan Lasers, 2012. Available at: http://www.topganlasers.com [Accessed 5/3/2013].
  8. Nortel Networks, 2009. Available at: http://www.nortelnetworks.com/hpocs . [Accessed 5/3/2013].

2013

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

1997

S. Nakamura, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akhter, M.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bunge, C.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. P.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guilhabert, B.

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

Henderson, R. K.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henry, W.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kruglov, R.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loquai, S.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maaskant, P. P.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKendry, J. D.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

Rae, B. R.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shams, H.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Strauß, U.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, J.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ziemann, O.

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

P. P. Maaskant, H. Shams, M. Akhter, W. Henry, M. J. Kappers, D. Zhu, C. J. Humphreys, and B. Corbett, Appl. Phys. Express 6, 022102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, A. E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 61 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Nakamura, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36, 435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1346 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Kruglov, J. Vinogradov, O. Ziemann, S. Loquai, J. Muller, U. Strauβ, and C. Bunge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 167 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

TopGan Lasers, 2012. Available at: http://www.topganlasers.com [Accessed 5/3/2013].

Nortel Networks, 2009. Available at: http://www.nortelnetworks.com/hpocs . [Accessed 5/3/2013].

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

LVI characteristics of the GaN laser diode at 25°C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical spectra of the GaN laser at a constant temperature of 16.6°C and with increasing drive currents.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized frequency responses at different currents.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical 3dB modulation bandwidths versus bias currents.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Eye diagrams at (a) 1Gbit/s and (b) 2.5Gbit/s at photo-receiver output.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BERs versus received optical power at 1, 1.25, 1.4, 2, and 2.5Gbit/s at optimum bias currents for each bit rate, using a limiting amplifier after the receiver.

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