Abstract

This study proposes a method for adjusting subwavelength ripple periods and the corresponding double-grating structures formed on fused silica by designing femtosecond laser pulse trains based on localized transient electron density control. Four near-constant period ranges of 190–490 nm of ripples perpendicular to the polarization are obtained by designing pulse trains to excite and modulate the surface plasmon waves. In the period range of 350–490 nm, the double-grating structure is fabricated in one step, which is probably attributable to the grating-assisted enhanced energy deposition and subsequent thermal effects.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 054102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (10)

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, Opt. Express 20, 905 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Lett. 37, 482 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, X. S. Shi, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 21505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Rebollar, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. A. Pérez Hernández, T. A. Ezquerra, P. Moreno, and M. Castillejo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 014901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Tsibidis, M. Barberoglou, P. A. Loukakos, E. Stratakis, and C. Fotakis, Phys. Rev. B 86, 115316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, H. Xiao, H. L. Tsai, and Y. F. Lu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 275801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kietzig, S. G. Hatzikiriakos, and P. Englezos, Langmuir 25, 4821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2713 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

L. Englert, B. Rethfeld, L. Haag, M. Wollenhaupt, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, Opt. Express 15, 17855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ben-Yakara, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Wang and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, F. Syrowatka, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. A 81, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Ladieu, Ph. Martin, and S. Guizard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, Phys. Rev. B 40, 2031 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashmore, J.

A. Ben-Yakara, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barberoglou, M.

G. D. Tsibidis, M. Barberoglou, P. A. Loukakos, E. Stratakis, and C. Fotakis, Phys. Rev. B 86, 115316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Yakara, A.

A. Ben-Yakara, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 054102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 014901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, M.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

A. Ben-Yakara, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. E. B.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Castillejo, M.

E. Rebollar, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. A. Pérez Hernández, T. A. Ezquerra, P. Moreno, and M. Castillejo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Clark, S. E.

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, Phys. Rev. B 40, 2031 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T. H. R.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Das, A.

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Lett. 37, 482 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dörr, D.

Emmony, D. C.

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, Phys. Rev. B 40, 2031 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Englert, L.

Englezos, P.

A. M. Kietzig, S. G. Hatzikiriakos, and P. Englezos, Langmuir 25, 4821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Epple, M.

Ezquerra, T. A.

E. Rebollar, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. A. Pérez Hernández, T. A. Ezquerra, P. Moreno, and M. Castillejo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

G. D. Tsibidis, M. Barberoglou, P. A. Loukakos, E. Stratakis, and C. Fotakis, Phys. Rev. B 86, 115316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

Graener, H.

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, F. Syrowatka, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. A 81, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guizard, S.

F. Ladieu, Ph. Martin, and S. Guizard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haag, L.

Harkin, A.

A. Ben-Yakara, A. Harkin, J. Ashmore, R. L. Byer, and H. A. Stone, J. Phys. D 40, 1447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harnagea, C.

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, F. Syrowatka, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. A 81, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harzic, R. L.

Hatzikiriakos, S. G.

A. M. Kietzig, S. G. Hatzikiriakos, and P. Englezos, Langmuir 25, 4821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Lett. 37, 482 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, D.

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, F. Syrowatka, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. A 81, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Höhm, S.

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 054102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 014901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E. M.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, ACS Nano 3, 4062 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Javier García de Abajo, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jia, F.

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, X. S. Shi, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 21505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, H. Xiao, H. L. Tsai, and Y. F. Lu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 275801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang and H. L. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaempfe, M.

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, F. Syrowatka, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. A 81, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kahaly, S.

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaw, P. K.

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kietzig, A. M.

A. M. Kietzig, S. G. Hatzikiriakos, and P. Englezos, Langmuir 25, 4821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 054102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 014901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

S. Kahaly, S. K. Yadav, W. M. Wang, S. Sengupta, Z. M. Sheng, A. Das, P. K. Kaw, and G. R. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 145001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ladieu, F.

F. Ladieu, Ph. Martin, and S. Guizard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Li, X.

L. Jiang, X. S. Shi, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 21505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, H. Xiao, H. L. Tsai, and Y. F. Lu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 275801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

Liu, H.

Loukakos, P. A.

G. D. Tsibidis, M. Barberoglou, P. A. Loukakos, E. Stratakis, and C. Fotakis, Phys. Rev. B 86, 115316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Y. P. Yuan, L. Jiang, X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. F. Lu, and H. L. Tsai, J. Phys. D 45, 175301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, L. Jiang, F. Wang, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, H. Xiao, H. L. Tsai, and Y. F. Lu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24, 275801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiang, X. S. Shi, X. Li, Y. P. Yuan, C. Wang, and Y. F. Lu, Opt. Express 20, 21505 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lysak, T. M.

Martin, Ph.

F. Ladieu, Ph. Martin, and S. Guizard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, P.

E. Rebollar, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. A. Pérez Hernández, T. A. Ezquerra, P. Moreno, and M. Castillejo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neumeier, M.

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Lett. 37, 482 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Hernández, J. A.

E. Rebollar, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. A. Pérez Hernández, T. A. Ezquerra, P. Moreno, and M. Castillejo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rebollar, E.

E. Rebollar, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, J. A. Pérez Hernández, T. A. Ezquerra, P. Moreno, and M. Castillejo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 041106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rethfeld, B.

Richter, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, Opt. Lett. 37, 482 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. Javier García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, Nature 446, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 054102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 014901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

Sauer, D.

Seifert, G.

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, F. Syrowatka, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. A 81, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sengupta, S.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of representative [left, (a)–(c)] HSFL, [right, (e)–(g)] LSFL, and (d) double-grating structure on fused silica for single-pulse trains (Ns=1), double-pulse trains (Ns=2), triple-pulse trains (Ns=3), and quadruple-pulse trains (Ns=4), respectively. The total fluences are shown in each image. The pulse delays in each pulse train are 100 fs. The numbers of sequences (N) are 20 and 15 for (a)–(b) and (c)–(d), respectively. The polarization direction is indicated by the arrow. The small images inserted in (a)–(d) are enlarged with the same magnification.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Obtainable period ranges of LIPSS for different subpulse numbers per train from 1 to 4. (a) The HSFL periods in dependence of Ns at near threshold conditions with N=20 sequences. The fluences of 0.6–0.66 Fth, 1.1–1.22 Fth, 1.6–1.9 Fth, and 1.75–2.1 Fth are applied for HSFL generation at Ns=1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. (b) The periods of LSFL as a function of subpulse number (Ns) upon irradiation with N=10 sequences at a total fluence of 2 Fth. The error bar indicates the obtainable periods at a certain subpulse number with the applied fluences and N.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Widths of valleys and peaks in HSFL as functions of subpulse number per train at a pulse delay of 100 fs. The error bar indicates the obtainable widths at a certain subpulse number with the applied fluences and N [same to that in Fig. 2(a)] for HSFL generation.

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