Abstract

We demonstrate a continuous wave, single-frequency terahertz (THz) source emitting 1.9 THz. The linewidth is less than 100 kHz and the generated THz output power exceeds 100 μW. The THz source is based on parametric difference frequency generation within a nonlinear crystal located in an optical enhancement cavity. Two single-frequency vertical-external-cavity source-emitting lasers with emission wavelengths spaced by 6.8 nm are phase locked to the external cavity and provide pump photons for the nonlinear downconversion. It is demonstrated that the THz source can be used as a local oscillator to drive a receiver used in astronomy applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 37, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

J. Paul, Y. Kaneda, T.-L. Wang, C. Lytle, J. V. Moloney, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 36, 61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Taniuchi and H. Nakanishi, Electron. Lett. 40, 327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Avetisyan, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

Bedford, R.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

d’Aubigny, C. Y. D.

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dineen, C.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Express 18, 27112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

Hader, J.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, T.

Hebling, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heinen, B.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hessenius, C.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Honingh, C. E.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 25, 1714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

Justen, M.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, Y.

J. Paul, Y. Kaneda, T.-L. Wang, C. Lytle, J. V. Moloney, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 36, 61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 25, 1714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 124 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Express 18, 27112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 37, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Express 18, 27112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laurain, A.

Li, H.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loa, I.

Lytle, C.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 37, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Paul, Y. Kaneda, T.-L. Wang, C. Lytle, J. V. Moloney, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 36, 61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Express 18, 27112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Myara, M.

Nakamura, K.

Nakanishi, H.

T. Taniuchi and H. Nakanishi, Electron. Lett. 40, 327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. T.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Paul, J.

Petersen, E. B.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Peyghambarian, N.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Putz, P.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 37, 25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Express 18, 27112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schomaker, F.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, M.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simon, U.

Sparenberg, M.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Taniuchi, T.

Tittel, F. K.

Walker, C. K.

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waltman, S.

Wang, T.-L.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Paul, Y. Kaneda, T.-L. Wang, C. Lytle, J. V. Moloney, and R. J. Jones, Opt. Lett. 36, 61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

T.-L. Wang, B. Heinen, J. Hader, C. Dineen, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, L12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, Nat. Photonics 1, 517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wulff, S.

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Z.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Yarborough, J. M.

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, Opt. Express 18, 27112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, A.

M. Scheller, A. Young, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, C. Y. D. d’Aubigny, and C. K. Walker, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2, 271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zong, J.

E. B. Petersen, W. Shi, D. T. Nguyen, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Avetisyan, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Taniuchi and H. Nakanishi, Electron. Lett. 40, 327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, and R. Bedford, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1700 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

P. H. Siegel, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2957 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

P. Putz, K. Jacobs, M. Justen, F. Schomaker, M. Schultz, S. Wulff, and C. E. Honingh, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 636 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the THz source. The output of two single-frequency VECSELs is combined using a thin film polarizer (PBS). A multiorder wave plate (MOW) rotates both beams to the same polarization state. The combined beam is guided through an optical isolator and mode matching lenses (f). To lock both beams to the external resonator containing a nonlinear PPLN crystal, a grating (G) is used to spatially separate both wavelength components reflected from the cavity. The Hänsch–Couillaud scheme is employed to provide error signals for the locking. One of the VECSELs is frequency stabilized to a reference cavity using an electro-optical modulator (EOM) and the Pound–Drever–Hall locking technique.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Recorded THz power as a function of intracavity power in the external buildup cavity along with a quadratic trend line. (b) Stability of the generated THz power over a time frame of 15 min.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

High-contrast fringe pattern shown at two path length differences in this Michelson interferometer verifies the single-frequency property of the THz signal. The measurements were taken with path length difference varying from (a) 0 to 4 mm and (b) 150 to 154 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Heterodyne beat note between our THz source and the VDI local oscillator (set to 1897 GHz) mixed in the HEB. The measured linewidth is below 100 kHz on a 30 ms scale.

Equations (2)

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Δυυ=ΔLL,
υTHz=Δυ2Δυ1=ΔLL(υ2υ1).

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