Abstract

We have developed a differential column image motion (DCIM) lidar for measuring real-time vertical profiles of Fried’s transverse coherence length (r0) and testing it against a differential image motion (DIM) lidar and a DIM monitor by observing stars throughout a range of turbulent conditions. With the DCIM lidar system parameters elaborately designed and the detector installed with an angle corresponding to the receiving telescope axis, the focal position of the laser guide star from a range of altitudes that coincide with the CCD’s receiving area, r0 of different altitudes can be obtained simultaneously. The experiment results support the DCIM lidar and confirm that a high temporal and spatial resolution r0 profile can be measured with this method.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.
  2. M. Belenkiy, “System for measuring atmospheric turbulence,” U.S. patent application Pub. no. 2007/0077071 A1 (5April2007).
  3. G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Belen’kii, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and G. G. Gimmestad, Opt. Lett. 25, 518 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294 (1990).
  8. Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).
  9. X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).
  10. A. Zilberman and N. S. Kopeika, Proc. SPIE 5793, 89 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

2006

Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).

2005

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zilberman and N. S. Kopeika, Proc. SPIE 5793, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

1990

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294 (1990).

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and G. G. Gimmestad, Opt. Lett. 25, 518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.

Belenkiy, M.

M. Belenkiy, “System for measuring atmospheric turbulence,” U.S. patent application Pub. no. 2007/0077071 A1 (5April2007).

Bruns, D.

M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.

Dawsey, M. W.

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, F.

M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.

Eaton, F. D.

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gimmestad, G.

G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gimmestad, G. G.

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and G. G. Gimmestad, Opt. Lett. 25, 518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, F.

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

Hou, Z.

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).

Hughes, K. A.

M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.

Jing, X.

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

Kopeika, N. S.

A. Zilberman and N. S. Kopeika, Proc. SPIE 5793, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

Roberts, D.

G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. W.

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and G. G. Gimmestad, Opt. Lett. 25, 518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294 (1990).

Rye, V. A.

M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.

Sarazin, M.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294 (1990).

Stewart, J.

G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. M.

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and G. G. Gimmestad, Opt. Lett. 25, 518 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).

Wood, J.

G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J. W.

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).

Zhang, S.

Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).

Zilberman, A.

A. Zilberman and N. S. Kopeika, Proc. SPIE 5793, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. 227, 294 (1990).

High Power Laser Part. Beams

Z. Hou, Y. Wu, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, High Power Laser Part. Beams 18, 1602 (2006).

Infrared Laser Eng.

X. Jing, Z. Hou, L. Qin, F. He, and Y. Wu, Infrared Laser Eng. 40, 1352 (2007).

Opt. Eng.

G. Gimmestad, D. Roberts, J. Stewart, and J. Wood, Opt. Eng. 51, 101713 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. Gimmestad, M. W. Dawsey, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, and J. W. Wood, “Proc. SPIE 5793, 10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Gimmestad, D. W. Roberts, J. M. Stewart, J. W. Wood, and F. D. Eaton, “Proc. SPIE 6951, 695109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zilberman and N. S. Kopeika, Proc. SPIE 5793, 89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. S. Belen’kii, D. Bruns, K. A. Hughes, V. A. Rye, and F. Eaton, “Cross-path LIDAR for turbulence profile determination,” presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, Maui, Hawaii, September12–15, 2007.

M. Belenkiy, “System for measuring atmospheric turbulence,” U.S. patent application Pub. no. 2007/0077071 A1 (5April2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of DCIM lidar. 1, transmitting telescope; 2, LGS; 3, receiving telescope; θ , angle between X axis and focal plane; Δ , separation between receiving and transmitting telescopes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scatter plot of r 0 from DCIM lidar compared with r 0 from DIM lidar.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time history of the r 0 obtained by DCIM lidar with LGS at altitude 10 km and DIM monitor by observing star.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured r 0 profile from DCIM lidar under different turbulent conditions (1 km averages, r 0 at 550 nm).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z = h + f h [ 1 + ( Δ / h ) 2 ] 1 / 2 Δ x + f ,
z = [ f Δ Δ 2 h ] x + f , Δ h .
z = f Δ x + f ; Δ h , h Δ 2 / f .
θ = tan 1 [ f Δ Δ 2 h ] .
σ α 2 = 2 λ 2 r 0 5 / 3 [ 0.179 D 1 / 3 0.0968 d 1 / 3 ] ,
r 0 = [ 0.423 k 2 0 Z d z C n 2 ( z ) ( 1 z / Z ) 5 / 3 ] 3 / 5 ,

Metrics