Abstract

Integration of surface plasmon structures using semiconductor materials is limited due to the difficulties encountered in maintaining the resonance conditions upon packaging. We propose here a technology process allowing us to bond two semiconductors, such as gallium nitride (GaN) and gallium arsenide (GaAs), through a thin metal layer. This solution allows the excitation of a surface plasmon wave in an integrated classical Kretschmann configuration. The Letter presents various metal bonding conditions employed for Au deposited on both GaN/sapphire and GaAs substrates aiming at semiconductor–metal–semiconductor interfaces transparent at telecom wavelengths. The process conditions for the bondings are optimized using Ti/Au (3nm/30nm) layers on each of the wafers to be bonded under an applied pressure of 500 mbar at a low temperature of 250°C.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, Light 1, e20 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 18, 11, 11791 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Stolz, S. Faci, L. Considine, E. Dogheche, C. Tripon-Canseliet, B. Loiseaux, D. Pavlidis, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 37, 3039 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Ying, N. Horiuchi-Ikeda, and H. Hirayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7926 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Matsumoto, W. Terashima, T. Yasuda, and H. Hirayama, in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011).
  9. A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Shimatsu and M. Uomoto, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 706 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. W. Langer, A. Ezis, and A. K. Rai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1030 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Lee and J. T. Lue, Appl. Opt. 27, 1210 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, Light 1, e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, S. Faci, L. Considine, E. Dogheche, C. Tripon-Canseliet, B. Loiseaux, D. Pavlidis, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 37, 3039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Shimatsu and M. Uomoto, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, Opt. Express 18, 11, 11791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. Ying, N. Horiuchi-Ikeda, and H. Hirayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

D. W. Langer, A. Ezis, and A. K. Rai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1030 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Androussi, Y.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cetin, A. E.

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chazelas, J.

Cho, E.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Considine, L.

Decoster, D.

A. Stolz, S. Faci, L. Considine, E. Dogheche, C. Tripon-Canseliet, B. Loiseaux, D. Pavlidis, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 37, 3039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, Light 1, e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dogheche, E.

A. Stolz, S. Faci, L. Considine, E. Dogheche, C. Tripon-Canseliet, B. Loiseaux, D. Pavlidis, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 37, 3039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Erramilli, S.

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ezis, A.

D. W. Langer, A. Ezis, and A. K. Rai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1030 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Faci, S.

Gauthier-Brun, A.

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gokarna, A.

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H.

Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heyn, C.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

L. Ying, N. Horiuchi-Ikeda, and H. Hirayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsumoto, W. Terashima, T. Yasuda, and H. Hirayama, in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011).

Horiuchi-Ikeda, N.

L. Ying, N. Horiuchi-Ikeda, and H. Hirayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R.

Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kipp, T.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

Langer, D. W.

D. W. Langer, A. Ezis, and A. K. Rai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1030 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Li, X.

Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loiseaux, B.

Lue, J. T.

Matsumoto, S.

S. Matsumoto, W. Terashima, T. Yasuda, and H. Hirayama, in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011).

Mertiri, A.

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mustecaplioglu, O. E.

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, Light 1, e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pavlidis, D.

A. Stolz, S. Faci, L. Considine, E. Dogheche, C. Tripon-Canseliet, B. Loiseaux, D. Pavlidis, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 37, 3039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rai, A. K.

D. W. Langer, A. Ezis, and A. K. Rai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1030 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rehberg, H.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, C. M.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimatsu, T.

T. Shimatsu and M. Uomoto, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stemmann, A.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, A.

A. Stolz, S. Faci, L. Considine, E. Dogheche, C. Tripon-Canseliet, B. Loiseaux, D. Pavlidis, D. Decoster, and J. Chazelas, Opt. Lett. 37, 3039 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strelow, C.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J. H.

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Terashima, W.

S. Matsumoto, W. Terashima, T. Yasuda, and H. Hirayama, in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011).

Tonouchi, M.

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tripon-Canseliet, C.

Troadec, D.

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uomoto, M.

T. Shimatsu and M. Uomoto, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, H.

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yanik, A. A.

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

S. Matsumoto, W. Terashima, T. Yasuda, and H. Hirayama, in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011).

Ying, L.

L. Ying, N. Horiuchi-Ikeda, and H. Hirayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Gauthier-Brun, J. H. Teng, E. Dogheche, W. Liu, A. Gokarna, M. Tonouchi, S. J. Chua, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071913 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Stolz, E. Cho, Y. Androussi, D. Troadec, E. Dogheche, D. Pavlidis, and D. Decoster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Cetin, A. A. Yanik, A. Mertiri, S. Erramilli, O. E. Mustecaplioglu, and H. Altug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 121113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

D. W. Langer, A. Ezis, and A. K. Rai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5, 1030 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimatsu and M. Uomoto, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 706 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Ying, N. Horiuchi-Ikeda, and H. Hirayama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 7926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Light (1)

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, Light 1, e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Strelow, C. M. Schultz, H. Rehberg, M. Sauer, H. Welsch, A. Stemmann, C. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, Phys. Rev. B 85, 155329 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Kang, X. Li, H. Gong, and R. Jiang, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Matsumoto, W. Terashima, T. Yasuda, and H. Hirayama, in 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IEEE, 2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication process of the SMS interface based on GaN and SPR characterization: (a) metal bonding, (b) lapping and polishing of the GaAs thick layer, and (c) SPR characterization using a macro-GaAs prism.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Temperature and pressure profiles during the bonding sequence in the case of 250°C under a pressure of 500 mbar.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-sectional SEM views: (a) for Sp2 sample, the two metallic layers did not mix together and (b) for Sp4 sample, the two metallic layers are indistinguishable without any cracks in the structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SPR observation before and after bonding. The characterization was performed with a GaAs prism pressed against the thin GaAs surface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Bonding Parameters for Each Sample a

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