Abstract

We report the demonstration of a single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser operating at 2914 nm, which exhibits a spectrometer-limited linewidth of <0.4nm, in a 49 mm long holmium/praseodymium co-doped ZBLAN fiber. Narrow-linewidth feedback is provided by a fiber Bragg grating inscribed directly in the ZBLAN fiber using the femtosecond laser point-by-point technique. Measurements of the temporal stability and coherence confirm that the laser is operating on a single longitudinal mode.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

D. Hudson, E. Magi, L. Gomes, and S. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 47, 985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

D. Faucher, M. Bernier, N. Caron, and R. Vallee, Opt. Lett. 34, 3313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

2007 (3)

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Lett. 32, 454 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Agger, J. Hedegaard Povlsen, and P. Varming, Opt. Lett. 29, 1503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1993 (1)

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agger, S.

Airey, R.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Androz, G.

Archambault, J.-L.

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Astakhova, A.

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bernier, M.

Caron, N.

Chavez-Pirson, A.

X. Zhu, J. Zong, A. Miller, K. Wiersma, R. A. Norwood, N. S. Prasad, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 37, 4185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Chin, S. L.

Cockburn, J.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danilova, T.

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, D.

Gomes, L.

D. Hudson, E. Magi, L. Gomes, and S. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 47, 985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, Optical Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2003).

Heumann, E.

K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horley, R.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D.

J. Li, D. Hudson, and S. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hudson, E. Magi, L. Gomes, and S. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 47, 985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Imenkov, A.

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S.

J. Li, D. Hudson, and S. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hudson, E. Magi, L. Gomes, and S. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 47, 985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

Khrushchev, I.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kolchanova, N.

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kringlebotn, J.

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krysa, A.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Li, J.

J. Li, D. Hudson, and S. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E.

D. Hudson, E. Magi, L. Gomes, and S. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 47, 985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G.

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

Menzel, S.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S.

Miller, A.

Morkel, P.

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu, J. Zong, A. Miller, K. Wiersma, R. A. Norwood, N. S. Prasad, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 37, 4185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Povlsen, J. Hedegaard

Prasad, N. S.

Reekie, L.

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Revin, D.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saitou, T.

Saliminia, A.

Scholle, K.

K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, T.

Sheng, Y.

Shirakawa, A.

Smelser, C.

Smith, G. N.

Steel, M.

Steel, M. J.

Steer, M.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Vallee, R.

Vallée, R.

Varming, P.

Wiersma, K.

Williams, R.

Williams, R. J.

Wilson, L.

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M.

Withford, M. J.

Wu, J.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Yakovlev, Y.

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Z.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Yu, J.

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Zhu, X.

Zong, J.

X. Zhu, J. Zong, A. Miller, K. Wiersma, R. A. Norwood, N. S. Prasad, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 37, 4185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Revin, J. Cockburn, M. Steer, R. Airey, M. Hopkinson, A. Krysa, L. Wilson, and S. Menzel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. Hudson, E. Magi, L. Gomes, and S. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 47, 985 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, Electron. Lett. 16, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, D. Payne, R. Horley, L. Hickey, and P. Turner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Kringlebotn, P. Morkel, L. Reekie, J.-L. Archambault, and D. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, D. Hudson, and S. Jackson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1215 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, A. Chavez-Pirson, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Yu, Proc. SPIE 7195, 71951K (2009).

Semiconductors (1)

A. Astakhova, T. Danilova, A. Imenkov, N. Kolchanova, and Y. Yakovlev, Semiconductors 37, 960 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Hariharan, Optical Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup of the single-frequency Ho3+, Pr3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser. DM-1 is a dichroic mirror with high transmission at 1150 nm and 99% reflection at 2914 nm. DM-2 is a dichroic mirror that transmits the pump and provides 50% reflection at 2914 nm. The acrylate coating of the fiber was completely removed, and the end of the PbP:FBG was angle-cleaved to avoid a coupled cavity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DIC micrographs of (a) PbP FBG in ZBLAN fiber inscribed with 190 nJ pulses and (b) PbP FBG inscribed in silica fiber (SMF-28e) using similar pulse energy (200 nJ). Microvoids are observable in the silica FBG but not in the ZBLAN PbP FBG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output spectrum of the FBG laser (red squares) and the output of a free-running broadband fiber laser constructed using the same gain fiber (blue circles). The linewidth of the FBG spectrum is limited by the resolution of the spectrometer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal power stability of the Ho3+, Pr3+:FBG laser after a 200 mW change in pump power (at T=0s). The resulting change in cavity conditions (i.e., temperature tuned length) leads to mode competition that yields large output power fluctuations. After a time period of typically >60s, a stable power is obtained and maintained until another change in pump power occurs. The steady-state noise was not detector limited and was likely due to thermal, acoustic, and pump power fluctuations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement of the degree of coherence of the Ho3+, Pr3+:FBG laser. No degradation in experimental fringe visibility was observed over the entire scan range. Two-mode operation would yield a reduction in coherence of 30% on either side of zero delay. The upper coherence limit of 90% is due to a power imbalance in the two arms of the interferometer caused by the beamsplitter. This measurement was performed after the laser had reached the stable state shown in Fig 4.

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