Abstract

In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with double light-emitting layers (EMLs) having stepwise energy levels were designed to improve the EL performance of a red-light-emitting platinum(II) Schiff base complex. A series of devices with single or double EML(s) were fabricated and characterized. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EML devices showed improved EL efficiency and brightness, attributed to better balance in carriers. In addition, the stepwise distribution in energy levels of host materials is instrumental in broadening the recombination zone, thus delaying the roll-off of EL efficiency. The highest EL current efficiency and power efficiency of 17.36cd/A and 14.73lm/W, respectively, were achieved with the optimized double-EML devices. At high brightness of 1000cd/m2, EL efficiency as high as 8.89cd/A was retained.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. D. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1656 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

I. D. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agata, Y.

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birnstock, J.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blochwitz-Nimoth, J.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bold, M.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Che, C.-M.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, N.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, R.

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drechsel, J.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eom, S.-H.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Erk, P.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finkenzeller, W. J.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujikake, H.

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fukagawa, H.

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gonmori, E.

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanashima, H.

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, H.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ikai, M.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jou, J.-H.

Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, C.-C.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S.-W.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lan, H.

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.-Y.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maennig, B.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyakazi, R.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.-i.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Osada, Y.

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parker, I. D.

I. D. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.-J.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pudzich, R.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, D. S.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qu, B.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rausch, A. F.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, Y.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.-J.

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Teng, M.-Y.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, T.

H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, M.

M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Werner, A.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.-Y.

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.-L.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yersin, H.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, X.-Z.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.-J.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.-X.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N.

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, J.-L.

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (6)

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 23, 926 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, S.-J. Su, Y. Agata, H. Lan, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 21, 1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Zhu, L. Zhou, H.-Y. Li, Q.-L. Xu, M.-Y. Teng, Y.-X. Zheng, J.-L. Zuo, H.-J. Zhang, and X.-Z. You, Adv. Mater. 23, 4041 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukagawa, T. Shimizu, H. Hanashima, Y. Osada, M. Suzuki, and H. Fujikake, Adv. Mater. 24, 5099 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, E. Gonmori, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 4189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, Adv. Mater. 20, 2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

G. Zhou, W.-Y. Wong, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 1149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

X. Zhou, D. S. Qin, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, K. Leo, M. Bold, P. Erk, and H. Hartmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4070 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, and R. Pudzich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Tsai and J.-H. Jou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243521 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukagawa, K. Watanabe, T. Tsuzuki, and S. Tokito, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, N. Chopra, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, F. So, and J. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 123306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eur. J. (1)

C.-M. Che, C.-C. Kwok, S.-W. Lai, A. F. Rausch, W. J. Finkenzeller, N. Zhu, and H. Yersin, Chem. Eur. J. 16, 233 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

I. D. Parker, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Uchida, C. Adachi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Z. Guo, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 064504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (1)

T. Chiba, Y.-J. Pu, R. Miyakazi, K.-i. Nakayama, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, Org. Electron. 12, 710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: proposed energy level diagram of the designed OLEDs in this study. Right: structure of 5a.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

EL efficiency–current density characteristics of the devices with 5a at different doping concentrations. Inset: brightness–voltage–current density characteristics of the devices with 5a at different doping concentrations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

EL efficiency–current density characteristics of devices A, B, C, D, E, and F. Inset: brightness–voltage–current density characteristics of devices A, B, C, D, E, and F.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

EL efficiency–current density characteristics of devices G, H, I, and J. Inset: brightness–voltage–current density characteristics of devices G, H, I, and J.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized EL spectra of devices F, G, and H operating at 10mA/cm2. PL spectra of TcTa and 26DCzPPy are also shown.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Key Properties of Devices A, B, C, D, E, and F

Metrics