Abstract

A power scalable thulium-doped fiber-amplifier-based supercontinuum (SC) laser covering the shortwave infrared region from 2 to 2.5 μm is demonstrated. The SC laser has an average power up to 25.7 W and a spectral density of >12dBm/nm. Power scalability of the laser is proven by showing that the SC laser maintains a nearly constant spectral output, beam quality (M2 measurements), and output spectral stability as the SC average power is scaled from 5 to 25.7 W average output power. We verify that the SC laser beam is nearly diffraction limited with an M2<1.2 for all power levels. Output spectral stability measurements with power scaling show a radiometric variability of <0.8% across the entire SC spectrum.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035105 (2013).
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V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Geng, Q. Wang, and S. Jiang, Appl. Opt. 51, 834 (2012).
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2011 (3)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
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2008 (1)

Alam, S.

Alexander, V. V.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. Larsen, D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, K. P. Hansen, K. E. Mattsson, and O. Bang, Opt. Express 19, 14883 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhadra, S. K.

Buccoliero, D.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chan, A.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. K.

Chen, S.

Codemard, C.

Cumberland, B. A.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faucher, M.

M. Faucher and Y. K. Lize, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (IEEE, 2007), paper CFI7.

Fred, J.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Freeman, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

Ghosh, D.

Hansen, K. P.

Hayes, J. R.

Hou, J.

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Song, J. Hou, S. Chen, W. Yang, and Q. Lu, Opt. Lett. 37, 1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

Islam, M. N.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

Jiang, Z. F.

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ke, K.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, O. P.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Larsen, C.

Li, C.

Li, X.

Lin, D.

Liu, Z. J.

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lize, Y. K.

M. Faucher and Y. K. Lize, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (IEEE, 2007), paper CFI7.

Lu, Q.

Malinowski, A.

Mattsson, K. E.

Mauricio, J.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Michalska, M.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neelakandan, M.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noordegraaf, D.

Pal, M.

Popov, S. V.

Price, J. H. V.

Richardson, D. J.

Shen, D.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Song, R.

Steffensen, H.

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Swiderski, J.

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

Terry, F. L.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. P. Kulkarni, V. V. Alexander, M. Kumar, M. J. Freeman, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2486 (2011).
[Crossref]

Terry, L.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Travers, J. C.

Wang, H.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Welsh, M. J.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, R.

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yang, W. Q.

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Zakel, A.

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhao, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Buccoliero, H. Steffensen, O. Bang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 061106 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, J. Fred, L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 422 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Swiderski and M. Michalska, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035105 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Q. Yang, B. Zhang, J. Hou, R. Xiao, Z. F. Jiang, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 055107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

V. V. Alexander, O. P. Kulkarni, M. Kumar, C. Xia, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Welsh, K. Ke, M. J. Freeman, M. Neelakandan, and A. Chan, Opt. Fiber Technol. 18, 349 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Pramana (1)

J. C. Travers, Pramana 75, 769 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Faucher and Y. K. Lize, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (IEEE, 2007), paper CFI7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout of the 25.7 W SC laser (top). 25.7 W SC output spectrum from 1.95 to 2.55 μm (bottom).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Linear scaling of SC average power with repetition rate (left). Nearly constant SC output spectra with average power scaling (right).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SWIR camera image of the beam at 25.7 W SC (left). Corresponding Gaussian fit of the beam cross section at 25.7 W (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured FWHM beamwidth with power scaling (left). Corresponding M2 values with power scaling (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sixty scan sequence of the 25.7 W SC spectra (left). SC output relative variability with power scaling (right).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffuse spectral reflectance measurements using the SC laser (solid) and lamp reference measurements (dashed).

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