Abstract

This Letter reports a method to produce two-dimensional self-assembled plasmonic nanopillar (NP) arrays with independent control of the diameter (d), spacing (s), and height (h) of the NPs. A plasmonic lattice was designed and optimized for maximum plasmonic activity at 980 nm using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. The optimized lattice with d=365nm, s=410nm, and h=70nm was fabricated utilizing a self-assembled nanosphere lithography approach. Outstanding agreement between the observed and predicted results confirms the validity of the design process and the controllability and repeatability of the fabrication process. The excellent short-range order in the lattice structure suggests that this method can replace the electron-beam lithography approach in a scalable and cost-effective manner.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. Wang, K. Lai, C. Lin, and J. He, Langmuir 26, 12855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsai, M. Ballarotto, D. B. Romero, W. N. Herman, H. Kan, and R. J. Phaneuf, Opt. Express 18, A528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Halas, Nano Lett. 10, 3816 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Chen, F. Chien, G. Lin, and K. Lee, Opt. Lett. 29, 1390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, T.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ballarotto, M.

Baroughi, M.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baroughi, M. F.

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Paudel, K. Bayat, M. F. Baroughi, S. May, and D. W. Galipeau, Opt. Express 17, 22179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bassim, N. D.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bayat, K.

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Paudel, K. Bayat, M. F. Baroughi, S. May, and D. W. Galipeau, Opt. Express 17, 22179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bezares, F. J.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, J. D.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cha, Y. K.

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chien, F.

Choi, B.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. W.

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colburn, M.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dachhepati, D.

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Damle, S.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ekerdt, J.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feygelson, M.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Galipeau, D. W.

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gautam, U.

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Glembocki, O.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N.

N. Halas, Nano Lett. 10, 3816 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

H. Wang, K. Lai, C. Lin, and J. He, Langmuir 26, 12855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W. N.

Hosten, C.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

Kasica, R.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lai, K.

H. Wang, K. Lai, C. Lin, and J. He, Langmuir 26, 12855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lin, C.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Lai, C. Lin, and J. He, Langmuir 26, 12855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

May, S.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Paudel, K. Bayat, M. F. Baroughi, S. May, and D. W. Galipeau, Opt. Express 17, 22179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michaelson, T.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mottaghian, S.

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paudel, H.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paudel, H. P.

Phaneuf, R. J.

Rendell, R. W.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romero, D. B.

Shirey, L.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. S.

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sreenivasan, S. V.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S.

Ukaegbu, M.

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, K. Lai, C. Lin, and J. He, Langmuir 26, 12855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wedlake, M.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Willson, C. G.

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, I. K.

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, L.

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

J. D. Caldwell, O. Glembocki, F. J. Bezares, N. D. Bassim, R. W. Rendell, M. Feygelson, M. Ukaegbu, R. Kasica, L. Shirey, and C. Hosten, ACS Nano 5, 4046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Jeong, Y. K. Cha, I. K. Yoo, Y. S. Song, and C. W. Chung, Chem. Mater. 16, 1612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

H. Wang, K. Lai, C. Lin, and J. He, Langmuir 26, 12855 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

U. Gautam, J. Wang, D. Dachhepati, S. Mottaghian, K. Bayat, and M. F. Baroughi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1449, bb03 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

E. Garnett and P. Yang, Nano Lett. 10, 1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Halas, Nano Lett. 10, 3816 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. C (1)

H. Paudel, L. Zhong, K. Bayat, M. Baroughi, S. Smith, C. Lin, C. Jiang, M. Berry, and S. May, Phys. Chem. C 115, 19028 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of a self-assembled plasmonic lattice produced using our design process. (b) Distributions of s, α and d parameters in the lattice of (a) quantifying the random disorder resulting from the self-assembly process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

FDTD simulation results: specular reflectance at λ=980nm from self-assembled plasmonic lattice shown in (a) as a function of d and h parameters and (c) as a function of wavelength and incident angle for optimum geometrical parameters of s=410, d=365, and h=70nm. The corresponding simulations for an idealized “perfect” periodic lattice are shown in (b) and (d). Panel (e) shows the simulated spatial distribution of the electric-field intensity with 980 nm incident irradiation for the actual self-assembled plasmonic lattice, including defects. The simulation is in the xy plane at a height of 70 nm above the base of the structured gold layer. Panel (f) shows a cross-sectional view of the electric-field distribution in the yz plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Simulated specular reflectance as a function of wavelength for self-assembled plasmonic lattice with the optimum geometrical parameters. (b) Measured spectral reflectance spectra from two different spots (7mm×12mm) on the fabricated self-assembled plasmonic lattices. The reflectance spectrum of a planar gold surface is shown for comparison.

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