Abstract

We demonstrate a comb-calibrated frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW ladar) system for absolute distance measurements. The FMCW ladar uses a compact external cavity laser that is swept quasi-sinusoidally over 1 THz at a 1 kHz rate. The system simultaneously records the heterodyne FMCW ladar signal and the instantaneous laser frequency at sweep rates up to 3400THz/s, as measured against a free-running frequency comb (femtosecond fiber laser). Demodulation of the ladar signal against the instantaneous laser frequency yields the range to the target with 1 ms update rates, bandwidth-limited 130 μm resolution and a 100nm accuracy that is directly linked to the counted repetition rate of the comb. The precision is <100nm at the 1 ms update rate and reaches 6nm for a 100 ms average.

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, Opt. Express 17, 15991 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).
  4. P. A. Roos, R. R. Reibel, T. Berg, B. Kaylor, Z. W. Barber, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Lett. 34, 3692 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. W. Barber, W. R. Babbitt, B. Kaylor, R. R. Reibel, and P. A. Roos, Appl. Opt. 49, 213 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Salvade, N. Schuhler, S. Leveque, and S. Le Floch, Appl. Opt. 47, 2715 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. U. Piracha, D. Nguyen, I. Ozdur, and P. J. Delfyett, Opt. Express 19, 11213 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T.-A. Liu, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, Opt. Express 19, 18501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Minoshima and H. Matsumoto, Appl. Opt. 39, 5512 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Minoshima, K. Arai, and H. Inaba, Opt. Express 19, 26095 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, Opt. Express 17, 9300 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Stone, A. Stejskal, and L. Howard, Appl. Opt. 38, 5981 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. W. Barber, F. R. Giorgetta, P. A. Roos, I. Coddington, J. R. Dahl, R. R. Reibel, N. Greenfield, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 36, 1152 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Knabe, P. A. Williams, F. R. Giorgetta, C. M. Armacost, S. Crivello, M. B. Radunsky, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Express 20, 12432 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

2012 (3)

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Knabe, P. A. Williams, F. R. Giorgetta, C. M. Armacost, S. Crivello, M. B. Radunsky, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Express 20, 12432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

Z. W. Barber, W. R. Babbitt, B. Kaylor, R. R. Reibel, and P. A. Roos, Appl. Opt. 49, 213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, Opt. Express 17, 9300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Satyan, A. Vasilyev, G. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, Opt. Express 17, 15991 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, R. R. Reibel, T. Berg, B. Kaylor, Z. W. Barber, and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Lett. 34, 3692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2001 (1)

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

Amann, M.-C.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anthon, D.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Arai, K.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Armacost, C. M.

Babbitt, W. R.

Balling, P.

Barber, Z. W.

Baumann, E.

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berg, T.

Berger, J.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Bhattacharya, N.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, T.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, F. R. Giorgetta, P. A. Roos, I. Coddington, J. R. Dahl, R. R. Reibel, N. Greenfield, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 36, 1152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-A. Liu, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, Opt. Express 19, 18501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crivello, S.

Dagalakis, N.

W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).

Dahl, J. R.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

Drake, J.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Dutta, S.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Fennema, A.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Giorgetta, F. R.

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Knabe, P. A. Williams, F. R. Giorgetta, C. M. Armacost, S. Crivello, M. B. Radunsky, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Express 20, 12432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, F. R. Giorgetta, P. A. Roos, I. Coddington, J. R. Dahl, R. R. Reibel, N. Greenfield, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 36, 1152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorman, J.

W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).

Gorodetsky, M. L.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grade, J.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Greenfield, N.

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Howard, L.

Hrinya, S.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Hyun, S.

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilkov, F.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Inaba, H.

Jerman, H.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Jin, J.

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juberts, M.

W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).

Kaylor, B.

Kim, S. W.

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

King, D.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knabe, K.

Kok, G. J. P.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kren, P.

Le Floch, S.

Lee, H.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lescure, M.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, S.

Leyva, V.

Liu, T.-A.

Masika, P.

Matsumoto, H.

Minoshima, K.

Myllyla, R.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

K. Knabe, P. A. Williams, F. R. Giorgetta, C. M. Armacost, S. Crivello, M. B. Radunsky, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Express 20, 12432 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Barber, F. R. Giorgetta, P. A. Roos, I. Coddington, J. R. Dahl, R. R. Reibel, N. Greenfield, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 36, 1152 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-A. Liu, N. R. Newbury, and I. Coddington, Opt. Express 19, 18501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

Ozdur, I.

Persijn, S. T.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piracha, M. U.

Radunsky, M. B.

Rakuljic, G.

Reibel, R. R.

Rioux, M.

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roos, P. A.

Salvade, Y.

Satyan, N.

Schuhler, N.

Stejskal, A.

Stone, J.

W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).

Stone, J. A.

Stone, W. C.

W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tselikov, A.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

van den Berg, S. A.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Balling, P. Kren, P. Masika, and S. A. van den Berg, Opt. Express 17, 9300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, A.

Williams, P. A.

Yariv, A.

Yasumura, K.

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Zeitouny, M. G.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Coddington, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Hyun, Y.-J. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Jin, and S.-W. Kim, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 095302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 3, 351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y. J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S. W. Kim, Nat. Photonics 4, 716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 4, 853 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M.-C. Amann, T. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. Myllyla, and M. Rioux, Opt. Eng. 40, 10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. C. Stone, M. Juberts, N. Dagalakis, J. Stone, and J. Gorman, “Performance analysis of next-generation LADAR,” Tech. Rep. NISTIR 7117 (NIST, 2004).

D. Anthon, J. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, and K. Yasumura, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (OFC, 2002), pp. 97–98.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. A MEMS-based ECL is swept sinusoidally over 1 THz with a 1 ms period. The system simultaneously records the ladar heterodyne signal and the instantaneous ECL frequency, as measured against a free-running frequency comb. In one configuration (dashed lines, det: detector), the signals are processed to find the range between the two glass wedges. This range depends on the calculated air group index of refraction. In an alternate configuration (gray lines, BD: balanced detector), the signals are processed to find the range to a brushed aluminum (Al) surface relative to a reference fiber arm. Here the light is focused to a spot diameter of 80μm on the Al surface. IQ: in-phase/quadrature detection. (b) Sonogram of the measured ladar signal. The peak amplitude corresponds to fFMCW(t). (c) Instantaneous ECL frequency, νECL(t)ν0. (d) Range signal to the brushed Al surface for a single 0.5 ms long sweep and 10100nW return power. (e) Expanded view illustrating the unapodized, bandwidth-limited resolution of ΔR=0.9c/(2B)=130μm, despite the sweep rate of up to 3400THz/s.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Multiple comparisons between the FMCW ladar and a CW interferometer for the distance between the two glass wedges of Fig. 1(a) at 10 ms averaging time per measurement. Note the CW laser interferometer requires a continuous measurement, whereas each absolute distance retrieved by the comb-calibrated FMCW ladar is independent. The standard deviation of the difference, Δ, is 80 nm. (b) Precision (uncertainty) versus averaging time at a 1m separation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Precision as a function of return power (measured at the detector) for ranging to a diffuse surface (brushed Al) at a 1m range for 1 ms measurement time per point.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σα2=0.505MHz(2πf)2Sv(f)sinc2(πfT)df,

Metrics