Abstract

A superimposition method for alleviating the characteristic artifact structure of an imaging fiber bundle is demonstrated. This method can reduce the inherent honeycomb patterns of fiber bundle images and restore hidden information by using pixelated images captured from neighboring locations. The pixelation effect is suppressed when multiple adjacent images, with centers separated by one core radius and arranged in a square pattern, are superimposed for summation. The restored image has preserved edge sharpness in cellular and vascular structure boundaries, compared to the reference image without pixelation and identical imaging modality, as found by optical coherence tomography.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Commun. 283, 633 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J.-H. Han, J. H. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Commun. 283, 633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 2878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Göbel, J. N. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, Opt. Lett. 29, 2521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Ajibe, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arce-Diego, J. L.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Commun. 283, 633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ayache, N.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. S.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Elter, M.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fanjul-Vélez, F.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Commun. 283, 633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Floreby, L.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ford, T. N.

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gerhäuser, H.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, W.

Han, J.-H.

J.-H. Han, J. H. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

Huang, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ido, K.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, T.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, M.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, J. H. Lee, and J. U. Kang, Opt. Express 18, 7427 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. N.

Kita, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kuno, A.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Lim, D.

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lovstrom, B.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malandain, G.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, T.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Münzenmayer, C.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nimmerjahn, A.

Ortega-Quijano, N.

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Commun. 283, 633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pennec, X.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perchant, A.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polcawich, R. G.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proie, R. M.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pulskamp, J. S.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rudy, R. Q.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, S.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salomonsson, G.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sattar, F.

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, Y.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. L.

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, C. G.

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, K.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sunada, K.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vercauteren, T.

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winter, C.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wittenberg, T.

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yano, T.

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

H. Yamamoto, H. Kita, K. Sunada, H. Hayashi, H. Sato, T. Yano, M. Iwamoto, Y. Sekine, T. Miyata, A. Kuno, H. Ajibe, K. Ido, and K. Sugano, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2, 1010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.-H. Han, X. Liu, C. G. Song, and J. U. Kang, Electron. Lett. 45, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. Winter, S. Rupp, M. Elter, C. Münzenmayer, H. Gerhäuser, and T. Wittenberg, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 53, 2035 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

F. Sattar, L. Floreby, G. Salomonsson, and B. Lovstrom, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 888 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

X. Liu, Y. Huang, and J. U. Kang, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 046003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Ford, D. Lim, and J. Mertz, J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Med. Imag. Analysis (1)

T. Vercauteren, A. Perchant, G. Malandain, X. Pennec, and N. Ayache, Med. Imag. Analysis 10, 673 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

J. S. Pulskamp, R. G. Polcawich, R. Q. Rudy, S. S. Bedair, R. M. Proie, T. Ivanov, and G. L. Smith, MRS Bull. 37, 1062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Ortega-Quijano, F. Fanjul-Vélez, and J. L. Arce-Diego, Opt. Commun. 283, 633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Original unprocessed image: (a) original pixelated image of a leaf sample (scale bar: 0.5 mm) and (b) superimposing individual images by slightly shifting the centers of the imaging positions along orthogonal lateral directions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Restoration process: (a) original image with pixelation, (b) sum of two images, (c) sum of three images, and (d) sum of four images (final result). The black circles indicate the contributed (averaged) shifted images (scale bar, 0.5 mm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image results: (a) image obtained by the proposed method, (b) reference image using a single-core fiber, (c) depixelated image using simple image processing, and (d)–(f) 5× magnified images of the square areas in (a)–(c), respectively, [scale bars for (a)–(c), 0.5 mm; (d)–(f), 0.1 mm].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Images before and after proposed processing: (a) original pixelated image (3D), (b) pixelated cross-sectional images (2D), (c) restored image (3D), and (d) restored cross-sectional images (2D). Cross-sectional images are taken for two different planes (top: xz; bottom: yz) scale bar, 0.1 mm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Image Quality Metrics

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CNR=1Oo=1Oμoμbσo2+σb2,
β=Γ(ΔsΔs¯,Δs^Δs^¯)Γ(ΔsΔs¯,ΔsΔs¯)·(Δs^Δs^¯,Δs^Δs^¯),
Γ(s1,s2)=(i,j)ROIs1(i,j)·s2(i,j).

Metrics