Abstract

An analysis of and experimental demonstration of active optical tuning of silicon strip waveguides with methyl red doped nematic liquid crystal claddings is presented. Under low-power irradiation by polarized light, the reorientation of the nematic, the resulting index change, and phase shift produce a tuning range of 5.6 nm for the microresonator resonances.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (3)

C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, Opt. Lett. 37, 2370 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Wang, S. C. Yang, T. J. Chen, and B. Y. Chen, Opt. Express 20, 15853 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

2010 (1)

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. W. Domanski, D. Budaszewski, M. Sierakowski, and T. R. Wolinski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akhavan, H.

H. Akhavan, M. El-Beheiry, and O. Levi, in 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

Budaszewski, D.

A. W. Domanski, D. Budaszewski, M. Sierakowski, and T. R. Wolinski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, A. T.

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E.

Chen, B. Y.

Chen, P.

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

Chen, S.

G. Ren, S. Chen, Y. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, Opt. Commun. 284, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. J.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, Y.

G. Ren, S. Chen, Y. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, Opt. Commun. 284, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

Cos, J.

J. Cos, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 1075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Cort, W.

Domanski, A. W.

A. W. Domanski, D. Budaszewski, M. Sierakowski, and T. R. Wolinski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El-Beheiry, M.

H. Akhavan, M. El-Beheiry, and O. Levi, in 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Fauchet, P. M.

S. M. Weiss and P. M. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6017, 60170H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F. A.

Fernández, F. A.

Ferré-Borrull, J.

J. Cos, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 1075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

Gunn, G.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Q.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hong, K. L.

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, V. K. S.

Huang, T. J.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

James, R.

Janossy, I.

I. Janossy and L. Szabados, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H. C.

Kanazawa, A.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Koshinz, D.

Krug, W.

Lapsley, M.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

H. Akhavan, M. El-Beheiry, and O. Levi, in 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Lin, T. H.

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. Q.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

Ma, Y.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marsal, L. F.

J. Cos, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 1075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

Pallarès, J.

J. Cos, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 1075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, G.

G. Ren, S. Chen, Y. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, Opt. Commun. 284, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

Shiino, S.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sierakowski, M.

A. W. Domanski, D. Budaszewski, M. Sierakowski, and T. R. Wolinski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szabados, L.

I. Janossy and L. Szabados, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

Wang, C. T.

Wang, T. J.

Weiss, S. M.

S. M. Weiss and P. M. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6017, 60170H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolinski, T. R.

A. W. Domanski, D. Budaszewski, M. Sierakowski, and T. R. Wolinski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

Wood, W. V.

Wu, S. T.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1995).

Yang, S. C.

Yu, J.

Zhai, Y.

G. Ren, S. Chen, Y. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, Opt. Commun. 284, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. X.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, S.

Zhao, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Maune, R. Lawson, G. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Cai, Q. Liu, Y. Shi, P. Chen, and S. He, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 121109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Zhao, Q. Hao, Y. Ma, M. Q. Lu, B. X. Zhang, M. Lapsley, I. C. Khoo, and T. J. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 368, 369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Ren, S. Chen, Y. Cheng, and Y. Zhai, Opt. Commun. 284, 4782 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

A. W. Domanski, D. Budaszewski, M. Sierakowski, and T. R. Wolinski, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. Janossy and L. Szabados, Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

J. Cos, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 1075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. M. Weiss and P. M. Fauchet, Proc. SPIE 6017, 60170H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1995).

H. Akhavan, M. El-Beheiry, and O. Levi, in 2012 International Symposium on Optomechatronic Technologies (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A) Simulated ring resonator structure showing critical coupling. (B) Schematic of the ring resonator device used in the experiment; window regions in the SiO2 cladding allow room for LCs. (C)–(E) Fabricated devices; (E) shows the fabricated ring resonator with an etched region for LCs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation result for TE modes of the ring resonator structure. Tuning of the resonance peak as a function of changing 5CB LC cladding index. The smooth line represents the resonance peak corresponding to ni. The maximum shift in the resonance peak is 17.1 nm (square markers), while a Δn=0.06 results in a resonance shift of Δλ=5.7nm (round markers).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A) Experimental setup. (B) Experimental results of 5CB LC doped with MR dye.

Equations (1)

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Δλ=LmΔneff(λ1λ2),

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