Abstract

We report on a pixel whose aperture can be varied electrically. The pixel is confined by a hole-patterned polymer wall and a dielectric liquid forms a ring shape around the wall surface. Without an electric field, the pixel has the largest aperture. The applied fringing field stretches the liquid surface, leading to a decrease in the aperture size. The switchable aperture ratio of the pixel is over 80% and the response time is 10ms. Such a device is useful for an optical attenuator, a light shutter, an adaptive iris, and an information display.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 15, 7140 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 16, 14954 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. H. Lin, J. K. Li, T. Y. Chu, and H. K. Hsu, Opt. Express 18, 10104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Lin, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 17, 8651 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. G. Tsai and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 35, 2484 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, Nature 425, 383 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 35, 3826 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, Lab Chip 11, 3426 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Penfield and H. A. Haus, Electrodynamics of Moving Media (MIT, 1967).

2011 (1)

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, Lab Chip 11, 3426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

Y. J. Lin, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, Opt. Express 17, 8651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, Opt. Express 15, 7140 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, Nature 425, 383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Akin, D.

K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bashir, R.

K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braschler, T.

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. V.

C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

Cheng, C. C.

Chu, T. Y.

Clapp, L.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demierre, N.

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feenstra, B. J.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, Nature 425, 383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, M. J.

T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gunji, M.

T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

P. Penfield and H. A. Haus, Electrodynamics of Moving Media (MIT, 1967).

Hayes, R. A.

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, Nature 425, 383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heikenfeld, J.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

Jones, T. B.

T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kreit, E.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. K.

Lin, Y. H.

Lin, Y. J.

Linderholm, P.

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McHale, G.

C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milarcik, A.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newton, M. I.

C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.

K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Penfield, P.

P. Penfield and H. A. Haus, Electrodynamics of Moving Media (MIT, 1967).

Raj, B.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Renaud, P.

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seger, U.

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suk, H. J.

K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. G.

van Lintel, H.

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Washizu, M.

T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wells, G. G.

C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Xianyu, H.

Xu, S.

Yang, S.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

Zhou, K.

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. B. Jones, M. Gunji, M. Washizu, and M. J. Feldman, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (3)

N. Demierre, T. Braschler, P. Linderholm, U. Seger, H. van Lintel, and P. Renaud, Lab Chip 7, 355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Park, H. J. Suk, D. Akin, and R. Bashir, Lab Chip 9, 2224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, Lab Chip 11, 3426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

J. Heikenfeld, K. Zhou, E. Kreit, B. Raj, S. Yang, B. Sun, A. Milarcik, L. Clapp, and R. Schwartz, Nat. Photon. 3, 292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M. I. Newton, and G. McHale, Nat. Photon. 3, 403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. A. Hayes and B. J. Feenstra, Nature 425, 383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

P. Penfield and H. A. Haus, Electrodynamics of Moving Media (MIT, 1967).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2060 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2391 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication procedure of an optical switch with bracelet-like liquid adhered to the polymer wall surface of each pixel hole.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Aperture of a pixel changed with different voltages and (f) the force balance of the ringed LC on the wall.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Hole array at (a) V=0(upper left) and V=80Vrms (upper right) with or without surface defects (Media 1), and (b) V=0 (lower left) and V=80Vrms (lower right) with normally filled (left and right columns) or excessively filled (middle column) LC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Aperture change of a pixel filled with black LC. (a) V=0 (Media 2), (b) V=80Vrms, and (c) transmitted light intensity change with time.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r1=r2cosθ+r3+Fd,

Metrics