Abstract

We report the characteristics of current induced frequency modulation (FM) for two continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at 9.06 μm. Both the frequency tuning rate and the phase shift between intensity modulation and FM are measured at different modulation frequencies from 10 Hz to 200 kHz. The frequency tuning rate of the QCLs depends on both the modulation frequency and amplitude. The tested QCL has been used to detect ambient water vapor with wavelength modulation spectroscopy for validation with a numerical model.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, and P. Robert, Appl. Opt. 42, 6728 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut. 124, 179 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. Miller and M. A. Zondlo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThJ4.
  6. M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, J. Geophys. Res.115 (2010).
  7. Alpes Lasers, “QCL FAQ List” (Alpes Lasers, 2007).
  8. S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, Opt. Lett. 36, 3109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 45, 1052 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, Appl. Opt. 43, 4446 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2011

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, and D. Hofstetter, Opt. Lett. 36, 3109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

2003

2001

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Domenico, G.

Di Francesco, J.

Faist, J.

Galli, I.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Hofstetter, D.

Jeffries, J. B.

Kosterev, A. A.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krupa, S. V.

S. V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut. 124, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. J.

Liu, X.

Massick, S. M.

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, J. Geophys. Res.115 (2010).

Mazzotti, D.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. J.

D. J. Miller and M. A. Zondlo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThJ4.

Paige, M. E.

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, J. Geophys. Res.115 (2010).

Pastor, P. C.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, G. B.

Robert, P.

Schilt, S.

Silver, J. A.

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, J. Geophys. Res.115 (2010).

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

Thomann, P.

Tittel, F. K.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tombez, L.

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zondlo, M. A.

D. J. Miller and M. A. Zondlo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThJ4.

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, J. Geophys. Res.115 (2010).

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Pollut.

S. V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut. 124, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. C. Pastor, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Yamanishi, and P. De Natale, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 984 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Prog. Phys.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. J. Miller and M. A. Zondlo, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThJ4.

M. A. Zondlo, M. E. Paige, S. M. Massick, and J. A. Silver, J. Geophys. Res.115 (2010).

Alpes Lasers, “QCL FAQ List” (Alpes Lasers, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental configuration for characterizing the QCLs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental signal and its MATLAB fitting for a modulation frequency of 20 kHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FM tuning rates of two QCLs versus modulation frequency.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

IM–FM phase shift vs modulation frequency.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

FM tuning rates vs modulation current.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison between experimental measurement and simulated 2f spectra using HHL-packaged QCL with 10 kHz modulation.

Equations (1)

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Det(t,η,φ)=[A·sin[ω·(t+t0)]+B]×11+F·sin2[π·η·δi2·sin[ω·(t+t0)+φπ]FSR],

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